(ii) Incorporated various failure and recovery behaviors including hardware failure, software aging failure, and Mandelbug related failure.
(ii) Nonaging-related Mandelbugs failures  on both VMMs and VMs subsystems: Both VMM and VM subsystems apparently confront with software faults which are broadly divided into Bohrbugs and Mandelbugs .
(iii) Software aging-related failures [39,53] on both VMMs and VMs subsystems: they are known as another subtype of Mandelbugs; software aging in long-run software systems like VMM and VM subsystems causes an increased failure rate and/or degraded performance due to accumulation of aging errors.
The VMM model (Figure 4(a)) captures different failure modes and recovery actions including aging-related failure and time-based rejuvenation policy, failures due to nonaging-related Mandelbugs (NAM) and repair, and dependency of the VMM on its underlying host.
The failure and recovery behaviors including the aging period, aging-related failure and recovery, nonaging-related Mandelbugs failure, and repair action are captured and described similarly to those in the VMM model (Figure 4(a)).