Axial slice (AS) and first cross-sectional slice (CS1) were taken at the most inferior point of mandibular foramen
; other cross-sectional slices were taken at the midpoint between the mandibular foramen
and the distal point of the mandibular second molar (CSM), at the distal point of mandibular second molar (CS7), and at the contact point of mandibular first and second molars (CS7-6) (Figure 1).
Its fibers pass downward, laterally, and posteriorly and are inserted, by a strong tendinous lamina, into the lower and back part of the medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible, as high as the mandibular foramen
. Different from SSRO, sigmoid notch had been osteotomies through by IVRO.
The two roots joined each other below the maxillary artery and the inferior alveolar nerve en-tered the mandibular foramen
in a normal fashion.
The sphenomandibular and stylomandibular ligaments provide medial support coursing from the spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingual of the mandibular foramen
and from the styloid process to the mandibular ramus, respectively.
The medial surface is characterized by the presence of the mandibular foramen
. The mandibular notch is located on the superior aspect of the ramus, bordered by the coronoid process anteriorly and the condylar process posteriorly.[6,10,14-16,33,34]
e) Mandibular foramen
to base of mandible (E): Vertical line from the ventral limit of the mandibular foramen
to the base of the mandible.
The position of the mandibular foramen
and its validity for sex determination was assessed by Rashid & Ali who reported that the vertical position of the mandibular foramen
is significantly higher on male patients' radiographs than on females.
Mandibular canal (MC) is a bony structure that begins in the mandibular foramen
on the medial face of mandible ramus.
Bhardwai et The changes in the mandibular canal and the al., 2014 mandibular foramen
were highly significant (p<0.05) with advancing age.
(2009) conducted a study on 50 dry right hemi mandibles where through direct observation and measurement with a microcalibrador obtained distances from the center point of the mandibular foramen
to the sigmoid notch, the anterior border of the mandibular ramus, posterior border of the ramus and lower border of the mandible.