The Barremian pliosaurid genera known in Colombia, Stenorhynchosaurus and Acostasaurus, are smaller in size and clearly differ from the new specimen MP111209-1: Stenorhynchosaurus has a more elongated snout, isodont dentition, and longer mandibular symphysis
(Paramo-Fonseca et al., 2016); and Acostasaurus has a shorter preorbital rostrum, large nasal present in contact with the parietal, anterior interpterygoid vacuity absent, longer mandibular symphysis
, different arrangement of the heterodont dentition (Gomez-Perez and Noe, 2017), cervical rib facets in ventrolateral position and double-headed cervical ribs (Gomez-Perez, 2001).
The aims of this study were (1) to determine the thickness and height of the mandibular symphysis
in the lower incisor region in orthodontically untreated adults; (2) to determine the thickness of the labial and lingual bone walls around the lower incisor roots; and (3) to evaluate the associations between these measurements and facial growth patterns, lower incisor inclinations, skeletal anteroposterior relationships, and patient age.
Subsequently, a horizontal incision was made at mucogingival junction from cuspid to cuspid at mandibular symphysis
region and a full-thickness (mucoperiosteal) flap was raised.
Several other bone fragments were discovered at the site, including the mandibular symphysis
, and a portion of the mandible which fits lateral to the complete molar.
Maxillary base length was measured as a linear distance in millimeters from condylion (most superior posterior point on head of mandibular condyle) to point A (deepest midline point on the contour of pre-maxilla between anterior nasal spine and incisor tooth) whereas mandibular base lengths were measured as a linear distance in millimeters from condylion (most superior posterior point on head of mandibular condyle) to gnathion (centre of inferior point on the mandibular symphysis
As reported in the scientific literature, the lingual foramina are orifices located in the mandibular symphysis
, superior and inferior to the mental spines (Murlimanju et al, 2012; Patil et al.).
Mandibular fracture is usually bilateral (Fossum, 2002) and invariably involves mandibular symphysis
(Singh et al., 1993).
Upper incisor absent; cheek teeth hypsodont; parastyle fold indistinct or lacking; protocone constricted; ectoloph greatly elongated; mandibular symphysis
Pathologic examination conducted during the first-stage operation revealed a positive margin at the mandibular symphysis
, and a further 1.5 cm of the right parasymphyseal bone was resected during the free-flap reconstruction.
Changes in the lower lip soft tissue after bone graft harvesting from the mandibular symphysis