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See studies by S. J. Freedburg (2 vol., 1961), F. Würtenberger (1963), and M. Haraszti-Takas (1970).
a trend in 16th-century European art that reflected the crisis of humanistic culture during the High Renaissance.
The basic aesthetic criterion of mannerism was taken not from nature but from a subjective “inner idea” of an artistic image that arose within the artist’s soul. Using the works of Michelangelo, Raphael, and other Renaissance masters as stylistic norms, the mannerists distorted their underlying harmonious principle by cultivating the concepts of an ephemeral world and of the precariousness of man’s fate, which they believed to be ruled by irrational forces. In the elitist manneristic art intended for the connoisseur, some elements of courtly and knightly medieval culture were reborn.
Mannerism was most clearly manifested in Italian art. Paintings by the early mannerists (Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentine, Beccafumi, and Parmigianino), who are associated with the 1520’s, are imbued with a sense of tragedy and mystic exaltation. The works of these masters are distinguished by sharp dissonances of color and chiaroscuro, complexity and exaggerated expressiveness of poses and movement, elongated figures, and virtuosic drawing, in which the line enclosing a form has substantive importance. In manneristic portraits (for example, Bronzino’s) which opened new vistas in the development of portraiture, the aristocratic aloofness of the characters is combined with an intensified, subjectively emotional attitude of the artist toward the subject. A unique contribution to the evolution of mannerism was made by the pupils of Raphael (Giulio Romano and Perino del Vaga, for example), whose monumental decorative works were dominated by atectonic, extremely grotesque ornamental elements.
From the 1540’s mannerism dominated art at the Italian courts. The painting of this period was coldly and “academically” formal and marked by a pedantically allegorical and eclectic style (G. Vasari, F. Zuccari, and G. P. Lomazzo). Characteristic of manneristic sculpture (B. Ammanati, B. Cellini, Giambologna, and B. Bandinelli) were stylized human figures, fragmented forms, and a bold treatment of the problem of sculpting in the round. In manneristic architecture (B. Ammanati, B. Buontalenti, G. Vasari, P. Ligorio, and Giulio Romano) humanistic clarity of image gave way to scenic effects, an aesthetic decor, and extravagant details.
The work of Italian masters outside of Italy (Rosso Fiorentino, Niccolo dell’Abbate, and Primaticcio in France; V. Carducci in Spain; and G. Arcimboldo in Bohemia), as well as the extensive dissemination of manneristic graphic works (including architectural-ornamental works), made mannerism a universal European style. Manneristic principles guided the work of representatives of the first Fontainebleau school (J. Cousin the Elder, J. Cousin the Younger, and A. Caron), the German H. von Aachen, and the Dutch painters A. Bloemaert, A. Vredeman de Vries, H. Vredeman de Vries, H. Goltzius, K. van Mander, B. Spranger, F. Floris, and Cornelis van Haarlem. However, the rise in Italy of Caravaggio and the academicians of the Bologna school marked the end of the manneristic style and the advent of the baroque. In modern Western art criticism there is a strong trend toward broadening the concept of mannerism unjustifiably by including in it masters who developed their own individual styles or who were only slightly influenced by mannerism (Tintoretto, El Greco, L. Lotto, and P. Brueghel the Elder).
REFERENCESVipper, B. R. Bor’ba techenii v ital’ianskom iskusstve 16 veka. Moscow 1956.
Rotenberg, E. I. Iskusstvo Italii 16 veka. Moscow, 1967.
Brigand, G. Der italienische Manierismus. Leipzig, 1962.
Manierismo, Barocco, Rococo: concetti e termini. Rome, 1962.
Studies in Western Art, vol. 2: The Renaissance and Mannerism. Princeton N.J. 1963.
Bousquet, J. La peinture manieriste. [Neuchatel] 1964.
Hauser, A. Der Manierismus. Munich, 1964.
Tafuri, M. L’architettura del manierismo nel Cinquecento europeo. Rome, 1966.
The Meaning of Mannerism, Hanover (N.H.), 1972.
M. N. SOKOLOV