For a ciliate residing in the mantle cavity
of a mussel, water currents in the cavity are important for the nutritional and respiratory needs.
In addition, the intramuscular collagen fibers store elastic energy during the exhalant phase of the jet and return the energy to help restore mantle shape and refill the mantle cavity
(Ward and Wainwright, 1972; Bone et al., 1981; Gosline et al., 1983; Gosline and Shadwick, 1983a; Shadwick and Gosline, 1985; MacGillivray et al., 1999).
Cilia appeared in the mantle cavity
and began beating (stage 32) (Fig.
The penis and the penis sheath are located together to the left of the extreme right margin of the mantle cavity
. In treated females, the arrangement of these male copulatory organs was similar but differed in the distance between the penis sheath and the penis: the penis sheath in females was located at the edge of the ctenidium at the mantle skirt, at a distance from the penis.
The shell plays a role in primary defense for protection of the organ system of the mantle cavity
, mainly against physical and mechanical stimuli.
QPX organisms and associated inflammation were not observed in clams injected in the mantle cavity
. After 2 months of water column exposure, only very rare infection by QPX organs with minimal inflammation was observed in mantle tissue.
In the mantle cavity
was always found a large quantity of mucus and only occasionally acidophilic granulated secretory products.
Most neomenioids have a few to numerous specialized spicules at the entrance to the mantle cavity
; these are presumably used in copulation (Fig.
The majority of purple-producing marine snails belong to the family of Muricidae, and most, if not all, produce in the hypobranchial gland (also called mucus gland) a colorless secretion, which is ejected into the mantle cavity
, and turns on exposure to air and light to Tyrian purple (Fretter & Graham 1994).
During embryonic development, an incipient organ that is primarily structured to ensure inoculation with the bacterial symbionts forms in the mantle cavity
. This organ includes a complex, superficial, ciliated epithelium that will potentiate inoculation as well as a set of epithelium-lined crypts, or inpocketings of the surface of the light organ, that will house the symbiotic bacteria (Montgomery and McFall-Ngai, 1993).
The hypobranchial gland is a single or paired, highly glandular area of the epidermal lining the roof of the mantle cavity
dorsata use the ctenidium to capture particles from suspension; these last two snails also capture particles with a mucus "pre-filter" that stretches across the upstream opening of the mantle cavity
(Werner, 1951, 1953).