# resistance

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## resistance,

in biology: see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
.

## resistance,

in psychiatry: see psychoanalysispsychoanalysis,
name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M.
.

## resistance,

property of an electric conductor by which it opposes a flow of electricity and dissipates electrical energy away from the circuit, usually as heat. Optimum resistance is provided by a conductor that is long, small in cross section, and of a material that conducts poorly. Resistance is basically the same for alternating and direct current circuits (see impedanceimpedance,
in electricity, measure in ohms of the degree to which an electric circuit resists the flow of electric current when a voltage is impressed across its terminals.
). However, an alternating current of high frequency tends to travel near the surface of a conductor. Since such a current uses less of the available cross section of the conductor than a direct current, it meets with more resistance than a direct current. In circuit analysis an ideal resistorresistor,
two-terminal electric circuit component that offers opposition to an electric current. Resistors are normally designed and operated so that, with varying levels of current, variations of their resistance values are negligible (see resistance).
, i.e., a circuit component whose only property is resistance, is called a resistance. The phenomenon of resistance arises from the interactions of electrons with ions in the conductor. The unit of resistance is the ohmohm
[for G. S. Ohm], symbol Ω, unit of electrical resistance, defined as the resistance in a circuit in which a potential difference of one volt creates a current of one ampere; hence, 1 ohm equals 1 volt/ampere. The megohm (1,000,000 ohms) and the milliohm (.
. See superconductivitysuperconductivity,
abnormally high electrical conductivity of certain substances. The phenomenon was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who found that the resistance of mercury dropped suddenly to zero at a temperature of about 4.
; Ohm's lawOhm's law
[for G. S. Ohm], law stating that the electric current i flowing through a given resistance r is equal to the applied voltage v divided by the resistance, or i=v/r.
; conductionconduction,
transfer of heat or electricity through a substance, resulting from a difference in temperature between different parts of the substance, in the case of heat, or from a difference in electric potential, in the case of electricity.
.

## Resistance

The physical property of a material to resist or impede the conduction of electrical current, measured in ohms. High resistance means poor conductivity and vice versa.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

## resistance

[ri′zis·təns]
(acoustics)
(electricity)
The opposition that a device or material offers to the flow of direct current, equal to the voltage drop across the element divided by the current through the element. Also known as electrical resistance.
In an alternating-current circuit, the real part of the complex impedance.
(fluid mechanics)
(mechanics)
In damped harmonic motion, the ratio of the frictional resistive force to the speed. Also known as damping coefficient; damping constant; mechanical resistance.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## electrical resistance

The physical property of a device, conductor, element, branch, or system, by virtue of which power is lost as heat when current flows through it; the physical property which an electric conductor exhibits to the flow of current; measured in ohms.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## resistance

1.
a. the opposition to a flow of electric current through a circuit component, medium, or substance. It is the magnitude of the real part of the impedance and is measured in ohms.
b. (as modifier): resistance coupling
2. any force that tends to retard or oppose motion
3. (in psychoanalytical theory) the tendency of a person to prevent the translation of repressed thoughts and ideas from the unconscious to the conscious and esp to resist the analyst's attempt to bring this about
4. Physics the magnitude of the real part of the acoustic or mechanical impedance
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscular activation levels of the Anterior Deltoid and the two heads of the Pectoralis Major (Sternal and Clavicular) while performing an isometric Dumbbell Fly (Dumbbell only: DFW or dumbbell plus manual resistance applied: DFMR).
When manual resistance was applied together with the dumbbell load, a consistent increase in muscle activity was displayed.
The MRT group performed the same movements with the same cadence and the same set/repetition/rest time scheme, but with an experienced and certified personal trainer applying manual resistance (Figures 1 and 2).
However, there is a lack of information on the effects that MRT can have in younger populations and those with recreational training experience, which is why the aim of the present study was to compare the effects be tween manual resistance and conventional resistance-training on maximum strength and muscular endurance in young recreationally trained men.
Photo 4 shows the mid-range position of the exercise with the application of manual resistance.
Note: dumbbells and manual resistance provide two other excellent options.
Manual resistance cannot be performed by individuals alone because a training partner is needed to apply the resistance for each exercise.
To obtain maximum results from manual resistance exercise, the lifter must become proficient at each exercise.
As strength levels increase, we can add resistance in a number of ways by maintaining straight legs throughout the movement, by placing free-weights between the feet or knees, or by having a partner apply manual resistance.
A bent-arm fly (using dumbbells or manual resistance) is an excellent single-joint movement with which to provide direct resistance to the pectoral muscles.
If you do not have access to equipment specifically designed to strengthen the flexors and extensors of the neck, we would recommend a sequence of manual resistance exercises (Photos 7-12).
The isolation movements used in conjunction with the Tru-Squat are hip flexion (drawing the thigh toward the abdominal region with either machine or manual resistance placed just above the knee area) and hip adduction (drawing the legs together from an abducted (spread) position with either machine or manual resistance placed in the inner thigh and ankle regions).

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