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maquis(mäkē`): see guerrilla warfareguerrilla warfare
[Span.,=little war], fighting by groups of irregular troops (guerrillas) within areas occupied by the enemy. When guerrillas obey the laws of conventional warfare they are entitled, if captured, to be treated as ordinary prisoners of war; however, they are
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a thicket of evergreen sclerophyllous and spiny shrubs and small trees (Turkish terebinth, myrtle, strawberry tree, juniper, wild olive, rockrose). Maquis are most common in the Mediterranean region, in the lower mountain zone up to an elevation of 700 m, forming dense, often impenetrable thickets or, more rarely, underbrush in evergreen sclerophyllous forests. Many species compose the maquis, with spiny shrubs predominating (average height, 3-4 m; trees measuring 8-10 m high are less frequently encountered). Maquis arose mainly on the sites of felled sclerophyllous forests, but some developed independently. Annuals predominate in the herbaceous cover. Many of the plants contain essential oils and have strong odors. Maquis is known as scrub in Australia and chaparral in North America.
REFERENCEIl’inskii, A. P. Rastitel’nost’ zemnogo shara. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
a name of French partisan units in World War II (1939-45).
Maquis detachments were first formed from Frenchmen who evaded labor service and deportation to fascist Germany by hiding in the mountains and in areas covered with growths of maquis. The Committee for Coordination and Struggle Against Deportation, headed by I. Farger, played an important role in the formation of the maquis. The maquis were an important part of the French Resistance Movement.