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, Ger. March, river, c.240 mi (390 km) long, rising in the Sudetes, N Czech Republic, and flowing generally S past Olomouc into the Danube River, W of Bratislava.
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in chronology, the conventional period of a lunation, i.e., passage of the moon through all its phases. It is usually computed at approximately 29 or 30 days. For the computation of the month and its harmony with the solar calendar and for the months in others than the
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march,in music, composition intended to accompany marching. The only constant characteristics of a march are duple meter and a fairly simple rhythmic design. In mood, marches range from the moving death march in Wagner's Götterdämmerung to the brisk military marches of John Philip Sousa and the martial hymns of the late 19th cent. Examples of the varied use of the march can be found in Beethoven's Eroica Symphony, in the marches militaires of Schubert, in the marche funèbre in Chopin's Sonata in B flat minor, and in the Dead March in Handel's Saul.
(Mark), in the Carolingian Empire and in the Holy Roman Empire, a large administrative frontier district headed by a margrave. Numerous marches were formed in the tenth through the 12th centuries east of the Elbe and on the Danube in lands seized from the Slavs, such as the march of the Billungs in the land of the Bodryci, the march of Gero in the land of the Lutici, the march of Meissen, and the Lusatian march. With the development of feudal relations, many marches became nuclei of big feudal principalities. Among these were the East March, which was the historical nucleus of the duchy of Austria, and the margravate of Brandenburg.
the organized movement of troops in march columns for the purpose of reaching a designated region.
During the preparations for and waging of military actions marches occupy an important place and - are the basis of the maneuver. Troops carry out marches in regulation combat vehicles (tanks, armored personnel carriers, and motor vehicles) and attached means of transport; motorized rifle forces sometimes carry out marches on foot or skis. Marches are made along roads or column routes. The march is usually carried out at night, but if the situation demands, it may also be during the day. Air defense for march columns is organized and march outposts are sent out to prevent a surprise attack.
March speeds and distances traveled in a day depend on the type of movement, the march training of the troops, the physical condition of personnel, the technical capabilities of transport, the condition of the roads (column routes), the weather, and other factors. In the course of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, Soviet infantry (and rifle) troops marching on foot would cover 30-40 km a day, whereas in vehicles they would cover up to 200 km. Cavalry moved up to 75 km a day; artillery towed by machinery moved up to 100 km a day; and tanks and mechanized troops could move up to 200 km a day.
N. N. FOMIN
a musical form used to promote the synchronized movement of a large number of people (movement of troops in formation, various types of processions). Marches have a strictly measured tempo and a precise rhythm. They usually are restricted to 2/4, 4/4, 2/2, and 6/8 time and are characterized by three basic parts that repeat throughout the piece. The first and last parts are generally cheerful and vigorous, while the middle part (trio) is distinguished by its melodiousness. Marches became widespread in the army, representing one of the main genres of military music. In addition to organizing troop movement, the march has been used to bolster the morale of the soldiers and to raise their fighting spirit. The main types of military marches are drill, field, and salutatory marches. A special type of march is the funeral, or dead, march.
Comparatively early in its development, the march went beyond serving only military and funerary purposes and appeared in opera, ballet, popular, and concert music. This led to the expansion of its form, more complex means of expression, and more meaningful content.
There are marches in the operas of Handel, Gluck, Mozart, Beethoven, L. Cherubini, G. Spontini, Gounod, G. Meyerbeer, Wagner, Verdi, Puccini, M. I. Glinka, Tchaikovsky, RimskyKorsakov, and Prokofiev. They also appear in instrumental com-positions by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Wagner, Strauss, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, RimskyKorsakov, and A. K. Glazunov. Vivid examples of the funeral march are found in the works of Beethoven, Chopin, and Mahler.
Soviet composers have continued the best traditions of march music, and have made important contributions to its development. Among the composers of Soviet military marches are S. A. Chernetskii, N. P. Ivanov-Radkevich, V. S. Runov, Iu. A. Khait, A. I. Khachaturian, and V. M. Blazhevich. Concert marches have been composed by M. M. Ippolitov-Ivanov, R. M. Gliere, S. N. Vasilenko, Prokofiev, and D. D. Shostakovich.
KH. M. KHAKHANIAN