The possibility that gender stereotypes may bias marking has received more attention than most aspects of marking bias. However, even here there is no clear agreement on what types of effects are operating and on the extent of their impact.
However, it appears to have been little exploited for occupational ratings and not at all in relation to marking bias. The present study goes beyond the proposals of Kenny & Berman in using a multi-sample approach to compare the way in which the work of male and female students is marked and in using a structured means model to locate the source of differences in the average marks of males and females.
Whilst there are ambiguities of interpretation, which have been discussed, the use of structural equation modelling provides a valuable new handle on marking bias. An accumulation of studies using the approach illustrated here could substantially improve our knowledge of the nature and magnitude of marking biases.