I locate the film's version of anti-consumerism in a long history of countercultural critique that depends on posing masculine protest against feminine conformity.
The film's social critique and its masculine protest is most clearly articulated in Tyler Durden's didactic pronouncements on the state of modern masculine selfhood: "We are the middle children of history, slaves with white collars, an entire generation pumping gas, waiting tables.
Perhaps the most useful approach to be undertaken in any study of masculinities, fear of crime and fearlessness, is one which combines elements of the most 'useful' of these theories (such as Adler's (1927) 'masculine protest
' -- see footnote 2), while remaining conscious of the negative aspects of each.
The men of Valois have constructed for themselves what Duneier describes as a "community of caring." A world apart from the conventional understanding of black men caught up in masculine protests
of violence, misogyny, and social alienation, these elderly men are unconcerned about - indeed, outrightly scornful of - displays of masculine posturing.