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the residue of alcoholic production by distillation of grain, potatoes, or molasses. Mash contains 92–94 percent water and 6–8 percent dry matter. It is used as fodder for animals in its fresh, dried, and ensiled states. The nutritional value of fresh mash ranges from 3.2 (potato mash) to 12.2 (corn mash) feed units and from 0.6 to 1.7 kg of digestible protein per 100 kg of feed. Dry mash has 60.2–102 food units and 12.6–14.9 kg of digestible protein. Fresh mash is generally fed in a mixture with threshed fodder; adult meat cattle get 70–80 liters (I) per head a day, younger animals 40–50 I, dairy cows no more than 30 I, and work horses 12–18 I. Chalk (30–50 g per head) is added to mash to neutralize the lactic and acetic acid. Mash is preserved by freezing, ensiling, and drying. It is ensiled in a mixture with threshed fodder and is fed to meat and dairy cows. Dried mash keeps well and transports readily. In animal rations mash can replace part of the concentrates.