Mass, composition (equivalence ratio), temperature and mass burning rate are calculated for every individual spray packet (zone).

This means that the mass burning rate inside each spray zone is limited by entrainment, evaporation and chemistry and is defined as:

FB,S,i] (kg/s) is the spray mass burning rate for a spray zone i, [m.

The combustion process is simulated using the approach proposed by Chmela [25] and applied by others [26, 27] where the mass burning rate ([dm.

The two main contributions to the reduction in the in-cylinder conditions (P,T) upon increasing the water fraction in air are changes in mass burning rate (primarily the laminar burning velocity, see eq.

Both the reduction in mass burning rate and the increase in heat capacity with increasing water fraction in air reduce the peak pressure and temperature as shown in Fig.

The specific

mass burning rate (rate of mass loss per unit area) was calculated from the surface regression rate and the density of the oil.

b] is the mass in the flame brush, Increasing flame brush and the fresh gas density means that this difference should grow during the flame propagation at a constant turbulent mass burning rate, contrary to Eq.

and Sheppard C, "Turbulent Flame and Mass Burning Rate in a Spark Ignition Engine," Fuel, vol.

Heat release analysis of the measured cylinder pressures provided the fuel mass burning rates which were used in an initial set of simulations to correctly model the in-cylinder pressure.

To solve the governing equations given above we need to find an expression for the mass burning rate ([dm.

The Lewis number decreases with increasing fractions of higher hydrocarbons in the mixture, which depresses the mass burning rate and, as a consequence lowers the peak pressure, while a decrease in the Lewis number as a result of hydrogen addition increases the mass burning rate and the resulting peak pressure.