The association between serious complications like corneal anaesthesia, masseter
weakness and lateral rectus paralysis with any particular balloon shape needs to be established.
In recent years, BTX-A has been widely used for treating a variety of neuromuscular disorders, such as strabismus, blephorospasm, hemifacial spasm and torticollis, migraine, hyperhidrosis, esophageal achalasia, bruxism, masseter
hypertrophy (MMH), and oromandibular dystonia (OMD).
Symptoms of an overtight jaw include shaking, bulging in the masseter
muscle on the surface of the ramus, and a jaw that rarely drops by much more than a finger's width.
One of the most common areas to get toxin injected is in the masseter
. East Asian people tend to have bigger masseters
than Caucasian people, plus the beauty standard is to make the jaw a little narrower.
Site/Morphology Live cysticercus Calcified cysticercus N % N % Masseters
and Pterygoids 3,397 74.70 364 56.35 Heart 835 18.36 202 31.28 Diaphragm 94 2.06 16 2.47 Tongue 72 1.58 21 3.25 Foreleg (forelimb, anterior, 58 1.27 18 2.78 front quarter, forequarter) muscles Esophagus 47 1.04 12 1.86 Hind leg (hindlimb, posterior, 34 0.75 11 1.70 rear quarter, hindquarter) muscles Liver 11 0.24 2 0.31 Total 4,548 100 646 100 [X.sup.2] for independence=92.25 (p<0.00001).
leporinus in the middle of this axis, also explained by differences in mandibular distances (DD, MFL) and the origin of the masseter
Evaluation of neuromuscular block at the laryngeal, diaphragm and masseter
muscles  is done by monitoring adductor pollicis, but it was not useful as the diaphragm recovers faster than hand muscles after succinylcholine.
reproductive spontaneous pain during crisis) were considered clinically significant at palpatory examination, with value equal to or less than: 1kg for anterior temporal and masseter
, 500 grams for the lateral pole of the mandible and 2Kg for SCM and trapezium.
On the other hand, pain is higher in the TMD patients than the TMD associated with bruxism patients during palpation on masseter
muscles (P=0.113) [Table 1, Fig 1].
The literature evidently addressed alteration of facial musculature in patients with SIS.7 Electromyographic analysis of facial muscles of two siblings showed an overall increased muscular activity of the temporal, orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, and masseter
muscles.8 Thus, teeth crowding in the present case could be referred partly to the strong perioral musculature contraction.
Various preparations can be used intra-articularly in TMJ OA and BTX-A that is injected to masseter
and temporal muscles under EMG guidance (6, 7, 17, 18).
Currently, botulinum toxin has been shown effective in the treatment of gummy smile in patients with hyperfunction of the muscles involved in smiling, as well as in patients with other disorders such as temporomandibular disorders (hypertrophy of the masseter
muscle, bruxism, clench) and myofascial pain (1, 6, 9).