Pathologic Staging Categories for Head and Neck Mucosal Melanoma (a,b) pT Primary Tumor pTx Primary tumor cannot be assessed T3 Tumors limited to the epithelium and/or submucosa (mucosal disease) [regardless of thickness or greatest dimension] (c) T4a Moderately advanced disease Tumor invades deep soft tissue, cartilage, bone, or overlying skin T4b Very advanced disease Tumor invades any of the following: brain, dura, skull base, lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII), masticator
space, carotid artery, prevertebral space, or mediastinal structures (a) Reproduced with permission from Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) in Brierley et al (3): Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, eds.
Solitary fibrous tumor can also occur in the masticator
space but these usually demonstrate a T2-hyperintense core with free diffusion.
Adipose tissue was absent from the scalp, masticator
, para-pharyngeal regions, and earlobes of all patients and was significantly reduced in extent in the buccal region.
T4b: very advanced disease: tumour involving brain, dura mater, skull base, cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII), masticator
space, carotid artery, prevertebral space, or the mediastinal structure.
Results from the studies [9, 10] demonstrated that the prognosis of T4 patients with involvement of a single masticator
space is better than that of others in the same stage.
Increasing trismus is an indication that infection has involved masticator
, pterygomandibular, parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces.
Involvement of submandibular space was seen in 10 (25%) patients, retropharyngeal space in 13 (32.5%) patients, parapharyngeal space in 17 (42.5%) patients, anterior visceral space in 6 (15%), visceral vascular space in 3 (7.5%), masticator
space in 5 (12.5%) and parotid space in 2 (5%) patients.
A case of Masticator
muscle myositis in a dog and its successful treatment is hereby reported.
Hydro axes, mulchers, and masticators
are all grouped into the category "masticator
." The skidder category includes both commercial skidders and tractor skidders.
The rotating head of a masticator
mulches timber and brush.
Thomas Hancock invented the "pickling machine" (rubber masticator
) in 1820.
The mass had compressed the masticator
space anteriorly without displacement of the carotid sheath, but with possible extension into the superficial lobe of the parotid gland.