The first section presents the museum exhibits that include sections for Mathematics, Astronomy, binoculars, Mechanics, Statics, Kinetics, and

Mathematical Geography.

And it is also worth noting that Kant does occasionally refer to

mathematical geography (eg, 9, page 164; 2, page 3).

Continuing with the example of the field mathematics, one would observe some 700 years of uninterrupted flourishing of a whole multiplicity of disciplines: algebra, algebraic geometry, theory of parallels, Diophantean analysis, numerology, computational techniques, methods of projection, geometric transformations, cartography,

mathematical geography, and so on.

28] In producing what would become for the sixteenth century the standard textbook of

mathematical geography, Peter Apian speaks in his dedicatory letter to the Archbishop of Salzburg, figuring as preface to his Cosmographicus liber of 1524, not only of the geographica disciplina but also of the geografica et cosmographica professio.

These volumes discuss in detail Babylonian and Greek astronomy; they also cover

mathematical geography, optics, the astrolabe, and a host of other topics.

In Charting an Empire, Lesley Cormack divides geography into three different sorts, namely mathematical geography, "descriptive" geography, and chorography.

Mathematical geography was initially taught within the quadrivium, and after 1600 it was transformed with the development of trigonometry and triangulation.

SOLSTICE: AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHY AND MATHEMATICS -- published by Sandra Lach Arlinghaus of the Institute of

Mathematical Geography, a small, independent research organization in Ann Arbor, Mich.

Arlinghaus is an Adjunct Professor of

Mathematical Geography and Population-Environment Dynamics in the School of Natural Resources and Environment, and in the College of Architecture and Urban Planning, at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Furthermore, because determining time and location was important in daily life, studies concentrated on

mathematical geography.

Basing her arguments not only on formal curricula and anecdotal evidence of informal practices but also (and especially) on a careful examination of inventories of books owned by Oxford and Cambridge colleges and by individual masters and students and on a no less careful examination of the collective biographies of those book owners and producers, Cormack demonstrates that all three branches of geographical practice -

mathematical geography, descriptive geography, and chorography - commanded keen, persistent, and widespread university attention in the crucial forty years from 1580 to 1620 when the English began seriously thinking of theirs as an imperial nation.

How do these instruments change, revise, and accentuate our understanding of Islamic scientific tradition in such fields as cartography,

mathematical geography, applied mathematics, and especially trigonometry?