The first section presents the museum exhibits that include sections for Mathematics, Astronomy, binoculars, Mechanics, Statics, Kinetics, and

Mathematical Geography. The second section contains the scientific library in the history of science.

And it is also worth noting that Kant does occasionally refer to

mathematical geography (eg, 9, page 164; 2, page 3).

It was followed by such books as General Geography (1902) written by Mahmud Hoca Bihbuddin; Geography (1914), written by Fatih Kerim; Cografyai Riyazi (

Mathematical Geography) (1914), written by Muhammed Emin Kerim; The Earth (1915), written by Munevver Kari Abdurresid; and Geography of Turkestan, written by N.

Continuing with the example of the field mathematics, one would observe some 700 years of uninterrupted flourishing of a whole multiplicity of disciplines: algebra, algebraic geometry, theory of parallels, Diophantean analysis, numerology, computational techniques, methods of projection, geometric transformations, cartography,

mathematical geography, and so on.

[28] In producing what would become for the sixteenth century the standard textbook of

mathematical geography, Peter Apian speaks in his dedicatory letter to the Archbishop of Salzburg, figuring as preface to his Cosmographicus liber of 1524, not only of the geographica disciplina but also of the geografica et cosmographica professio.

Kennedy of, respectively, astronomy in Islamic society and

mathematical geography; by J.

These volumes discuss in detail Babylonian and Greek astronomy; they also cover

mathematical geography, optics, the astrolabe, and a host of other topics.

In Charting an Empire, Lesley Cormack divides geography into three different sorts, namely

mathematical geography, "descriptive" geography, and chorography.

SOLSTICE: AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHY AND MATHEMATICS -- published by Sandra Lach Arlinghaus of the Institute of

Mathematical Geography, a small, independent research organization in Ann Arbor, Mich.

Furthermore, because determining time and location was important in daily life, studies concentrated on

mathematical geography. Geographical studies carried out in the Ottoman Empire served as a bridge between the West and the Islamic world and were transferred to the West in considerable amount.

(4) Here we witness the ingenuity of scientists from the 9th to, say, the 15th century, as they confronted a complicated problem of

mathematical geography: their results are impressive by any standards.

Basing her arguments not only on formal curricula and anecdotal evidence of informal practices but also (and especially) on a careful examination of inventories of books owned by Oxford and Cambridge colleges and by individual masters and students and on a no less careful examination of the collective biographies of those book owners and producers, Cormack demonstrates that all three branches of geographical practice -

mathematical geography, descriptive geography, and chorography - commanded keen, persistent, and widespread university attention in the crucial forty years from 1580 to 1620 when the English began seriously thinking of theirs as an imperial nation.