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matrix mechanics:see quantum theoryquantum theory,
modern physical theory concerned with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles; the quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics.
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A formulation of quantum theory in which the operators are represented by time-dependent matrices. Matrix mechanics is not useful for obtaining quantitative solutions to actual problems; on the other hand, because it is concisely expressed in a form independent of special coordinate systems, matrix mechanics is useful for proving general theorems.