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An early symbolic mathematics system.

[A. Rom, Celest Mech 1:309-319 (1969)].



(Moscow Architectural Society), the first association of architects and civil engineers in Russia. It was founded in 1867. Its first chairman was M. D. Bykovskii; subsequent chairmen were F. O. Shekhtel’ (1906-22) and A. V. Shchusev (1922-32).

MAO concerned itself with theoretical problems of architecture and civil engineering and was not involved in any actual construction. The organization initiated the systematic study of ancient Russian architecture and was concerned with the preservation and restoration of architectural monuments. MAO instituted architectural competitions in Russia (1868), initiated congresses of architects, and organized the first architectural exhibition in Russia (1872, part of the All-Russian Polytechnic Exhibition). Beginning in 1922, MAO primarily organized competitions, panel discussions, and lectures.

The association was disbanded in 1932 in connection with the creation of the Union of Soviet Architects. Its publications were Zapiski MAO (Notes of the MAO, 1905-09), Ezhegodnik MAO (MAO Yearbook, 1909-16, 1928-30), and Konkursy MAO: 1923-1926 gg. (MAO Competitions: 1923-1926, 1926).


Khazanova, V. E. Sovetskaia arkhitektura pervykh let Oktiabria: 1917-1925 gg. Moscow, 1970.
Khazanova, V. E. Iz istorii sovetskoi arkhitektury: 1926-1932 gg. Dokumenty i materialy. Tvorcheskie ob”edineniia. Moscow, 1970.