After six weeks, athletes in both the PG and SG showed improvement with regard to the variables of balance ability, decreased the M/L and A/P CoP range and mean velocity
, and reduced vertical ground reaction torque (Table 4).
(5), we obtain the mean depth [h.sub.d] and mean velocity
u of the debris flow.
[U.sub.m] = room mean velocity
magnitude, m/s (ft/s)
This vortex structure improves the mixing process, even though turbulence level and mean velocity
decrease after the end of injection (see Figures 2 and 3).
Figure 16 shows the mean velocity
profiles with and without the control of the PA at [U.sub.ref] = 30 m/s, where the PA was installed with co-flow and counter-flow configurations at [x.sub.pa]/d = 0.12 with the driving voltage and frequency of [E.sub.pa] =5.5 k[V.sub.p-p] and [f.sub.pa] = 7.0 kHz, respectively.
>0 [%] 89.63 89.47 number of stops [-] 53433.00 39.00 Stops per km [1/km] 1.00 1.14 mean velocity
[km/h] 45.85 44.09 max.
The Boussinesq hypothesis, which relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity
gradients, is expressed as:
So, different values of mean velocity
, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and clutter-to-signal ratio (CSR) are chosen to generate the observed Doppler spectra.
Similarly, the gradient of mean velocity
can be expressed by
where [S.sub.u] and [S.sub.v] are the power spectrums of u and v, respectively, and they are the functions of a nondimensional normalized frequency f; [n.sub.f] is the frequency in Hz; [u.sub.*] is the shear velocity of the flow; U([z.sub.h]) is the mean velocity
at the height [z.sub.h]; [z.sub.0] is the roughness height of the ground; and K is Von Karman number.
Total discharge, mean velocity
, and mean depth were calculated according to .
The preoperative mean velocity
of the nasal valve area (6.19 [+ or -]2.30 m/s) was significantly higher than the postoperative mean velocity
(2.88 [+ or -]0.87 m/s; P<0.01; Table 4).