measures


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measures:

see weights and measuresweights and measures,
units and standards for expressing the amount of some quantity, such as length, capacity, or weight; the science of measurement standards and methods is known as metrology.

Crude systems of weights and measures probably date from prehistoric times.
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Measures

 

means of measurements used to reproduce physical quantities of some given value. Measures can be quite simple, as, for example, measures of mass (weight) or of holding capacity (measuring cups, cylinders); or they can be more complex, such as standard cells (measures of electromotive force), coils of electric resistances, and photometers. Measures can be classified as single-valued (those reproducing the physical magnitude of a single value) or multivalued (those providing for reproduction of a number of magnitudes of different value, for example, several different lengths). Examples of the first kind are weights, measuring flasks, and inductance coils; those of the second kind are graduated rulers, variable capacitors, and inductance variometers. Measures can be combined into sets, such as sets of weights and sets of end blocks of length. Such sets are used for a step-by-step reproduction of a number of quantities of the same kind within a certain range of values. Sets of measures of electrical quantities are sometimes equipped with switches, and thus form boxes, such as resistance boxes and capacitance boxes.

The rated value of a measure is understood to be the value indicated on the measure or assigned to it, such as a weight of one kilogram or a resistance coil of one ohm. The actual value of a measure is the value that is actually reproduced by the measure, determined so accurately that the error of the measure can be neglected in using the measure. The difference between the rated and actual value of a measure is approximately equal to the error of the measure. A measure should remain stable with passage of time.

Measures are divided into classes of precision, depending on the magnitude of permissible error. Measures are used as standards, as base standards, or as working standards for measurements. The base standards are calibrated against standards and are used in checking the working standards. The error of a measure falls within permissible limits only for certain physical conditions, such as certain values of temperature, pressure, and humidity; these conditions are shown in the instructions for the calibration and use of the measures. Measures often become components of more complex measuring instruments or installations. Standard substances constitute a separate category of measures. Such substances are pure substances or substances prepared in accordance with particular specifications, and these substances have known and reproducible properties. Examples are pure water, pure gases (hydrogen, oxygen), pure metals (zinc, silver, gold, platinum), and benzoic acid. Also classified as measures are the increasingly widely used standard samples having definite physical properties (for example, samples of steel having a definite composition, hardness, or some other parameter).

REFERENCES

Malikov, S. F., and N. I. Tiurin. Vvedenie v metrologiiu, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Shirokov, K. P. Obshchie voprosy metrologii. Moscow, 1967.
GOST 12656–67: Giri obraztsovye.
GOST 7328–65: Giri obshchego naznacheniia.
GOST 12069–66: Mery dliny shtrikhovye.
GOST 13581–68: Mery dliny kontsevye ploskoparallel’nye iz tverdogo splava.
GOST 1770–64: Mery vmestimosti stekliannye tekhnicheskie.

K. P. SHIROKOV

References in classic literature ?
Damon, reached the scene they saw that, in a measure, this really accounted for what they heard.
Left now in a measure to themselves, the Mohicans, whose time had been so much devoted to the interests of others, seized the moment to devote some attention to themselves.
Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.
Thanks to these vigorous measures, the play was at last supplied with representatives -- always excepting the two unmanageable characters of "Lucy" the waiting-maid, and "Falkland," Julia's jealous lover.
The people rudely pictured as drinking in the wine-shops, croaked over their scanty measures of thin wine and beer, and were gloweringly confidential together.
What evenings, when the candles came, and I was expected to employ myself, but, not daring to read an entertaining book, pored over some hard-headed, harder-hearted treatise on arithmetic; when the tables of weights and measures set themselves to tunes, as 'Rule Britannia', or 'Away with Melancholy'; when they wouldn't stand still to be learnt, but would go threading my grandmother's needle through my unfortunate head, in at one ear and out at the other
Any resort to legal measures for ascertaining the culprit was contrary to the principles of the church in Lantern Yard, according to which prosecution was forbidden to Christians, even had the case held less scandal to the community.
He is making game of us,' they said; and the shoemakers seized their yard measures and the tanners their leathern aprons and they gave Big Klaus a good beating.
It is true, as has been before observed that facts, too stubborn to be resisted, have produced a species of general assent to the abstract proposition that there exist material defects in our national system; but the usefulness of the concession, on the part of the old adversaries of federal measures, is destroyed by a strenuous opposition to a remedy, upon the only principles that can give it a chance of success.
That body recommended certain measures to their constituents, and the event proved their wisdom; yet it is fresh in our memories how soon the press began to teem with pamphlets and weekly papers against those very measures.
For the iambic is, of all measures, the most colloquial: we see it in the fact that conversational speech runs into iambic lines more frequently than into any other kind of verse; rarely into hexameters, and only when we drop the colloquial intonation.
Ordinarily our parties are parties of circumstance, and not of principle; as the planting interest in conflict with the commercial; the party of capitalists and that of operatives; parties which are identical in their moral character, and which can easily change ground with each other in the support of many of their measures.

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