Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Idioms, Wikipedia.


see weights and measuresweights and measures,
units and standards for expressing the amount of some quantity, such as length, capacity, or weight; the science of measurement standards and methods is known as metrology.

Crude systems of weights and measures probably date from prehistoric times.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



means of measurements used to reproduce physical quantities of some given value. Measures can be quite simple, as, for example, measures of mass (weight) or of holding capacity (measuring cups, cylinders); or they can be more complex, such as standard cells (measures of electromotive force), coils of electric resistances, and photometers. Measures can be classified as single-valued (those reproducing the physical magnitude of a single value) or multivalued (those providing for reproduction of a number of magnitudes of different value, for example, several different lengths). Examples of the first kind are weights, measuring flasks, and inductance coils; those of the second kind are graduated rulers, variable capacitors, and inductance variometers. Measures can be combined into sets, such as sets of weights and sets of end blocks of length. Such sets are used for a step-by-step reproduction of a number of quantities of the same kind within a certain range of values. Sets of measures of electrical quantities are sometimes equipped with switches, and thus form boxes, such as resistance boxes and capacitance boxes.

The rated value of a measure is understood to be the value indicated on the measure or assigned to it, such as a weight of one kilogram or a resistance coil of one ohm. The actual value of a measure is the value that is actually reproduced by the measure, determined so accurately that the error of the measure can be neglected in using the measure. The difference between the rated and actual value of a measure is approximately equal to the error of the measure. A measure should remain stable with passage of time.

Measures are divided into classes of precision, depending on the magnitude of permissible error. Measures are used as standards, as base standards, or as working standards for measurements. The base standards are calibrated against standards and are used in checking the working standards. The error of a measure falls within permissible limits only for certain physical conditions, such as certain values of temperature, pressure, and humidity; these conditions are shown in the instructions for the calibration and use of the measures. Measures often become components of more complex measuring instruments or installations. Standard substances constitute a separate category of measures. Such substances are pure substances or substances prepared in accordance with particular specifications, and these substances have known and reproducible properties. Examples are pure water, pure gases (hydrogen, oxygen), pure metals (zinc, silver, gold, platinum), and benzoic acid. Also classified as measures are the increasingly widely used standard samples having definite physical properties (for example, samples of steel having a definite composition, hardness, or some other parameter).


Malikov, S. F., and N. I. Tiurin. Vvedenie v metrologiiu, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Shirokov, K. P. Obshchie voprosy metrologii. Moscow, 1967.
GOST 12656–67: Giri obraztsovye.
GOST 7328–65: Giri obshchego naznacheniia.
GOST 12069–66: Mery dliny shtrikhovye.
GOST 13581–68: Mery dliny kontsevye ploskoparallel’nye iz tverdogo splava.
GOST 1770–64: Mery vmestimosti stekliannye tekhnicheskie.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Unfortunately, many examples of these early cloth tape measures are missing the pull ring and some of the cloth tape itself.
Activity limitation outcome measures must be tested for reliability, validity, sensitivity to change, and responsiveness in the context of a particular purpose for a particular group of individuals before they can be used.
Indicative lists are useful, but governments can create new types of NTMs or blend different measures. As a result, it is better to examine whether a policy measure alters the relative treatment of domestic and foreign rivals, rather than to confine analysis to measures on an indicative list or measures covered by WTO agreements.
Well-designed BSCs feature tight linkages between performance measures and the business unit strategy.
There are some attempts to identify measures of training and development that are considered to assess the effectiveness of training and development as an integral function of human resource management in organisations.
The campaign in support of Measures 66 and 67 made a strong case for fairness, particularly in relation to a corporate tax increase.
Those who chose to report on individual measures must report on 80% of applicable cases for a minimum of three measures.
RPA shear rate sweeps (through variations in frequency) are commonly performed at a fixed strain set between 2 to 14% strain to measure the drop in complex ([[eta].sup.*]) and real ([eta]') dynamic viscosity with increasing shear rate for rubber compounds.
The Reserve Bank looks at a number of core inflation measures, and reports some of these in its Monetary Policy Statements (MPS).
The response format of the latter two measures was altered from that used in previous studies to a 5-point scale consistent with that of the NI, whereby 1 = a negative response (i.e., strongly disagree, never, definitely no) and 5 = a positive response (i.e., strongly agree, very often, definitely yes).