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wholesale business of buying and slaughtering animals and then processing and distributing their carcasses to retailers. The livestock industry is among the largest in the world. In the United States, the plains of the Midwest and Southwest provided good conditions for inexpensively breeding livestock, which was then transported to centrally located packing centers, such as Chicago and Cincinnati, and marketed in the densely populated eastern states. Chicago's Union Stock Yards (1865) was the nation's largest livestock and packing center until the mid-20th cent. It was closed in 1971, because it was unable to compete with newer, more modern facilities. Modern meatpacking dates from the introduction of refrigerated railway cars. In 1869, George Hammond, a meatpacker in Detroit, shipped frozen beef to Boston in a car chilled with ice from the Great Lakes. By 1880 mechanical refrigeration was being used. The introduction of storage and distribution warehouses made possible the rapid and efficient marketing of meat. The grain belt and the high plains of the Midwest are still distribution centers for livestock products in the United States.

Meatpacking byproducts include hides for leather; edible fats; inedible fats for soap; bones for buttons; blood meal for fertilizer; hair for brushes; intestines for sausage casing; as well as gelatin, glue, and glycerin. Byproduct pharmaceuticals include pepsin, testosterone, liver extract, thyroxine, epinephrine, albumin, insulin, thromboplastin, bilirubin, and ACTH.

Federal legislation requires humane slaughtering methods and examination for disease for livestock killed for export or interstate trade. The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 extended inspections to intrastate trade. A new inspection system requiring scientific tests for bacteria was put in place in 1996. The laws are administered by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA's grading service stamps beef prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter, and canner, according to the amount of its fat. See also beefbeef,
flesh of cattle prepared for food. It has become one of the chief products of the meatpacking industry and is sold either chilled, frozen, or cured. The leading beef consumers, as well as exporters, are the U.S., the European Union, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia.
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; muttonmutton,
flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia, and New
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; sausagesausage,
food consisting of finely chopped meat mixed with seasonings and, often, other ingredients, all encased in a thin membrane. Although sausages were made by the ancient Greeks and Romans, they were usually plain and unspiced; in the Middle Ages people began to use the
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See A. Levie, The Meat Handbook (4th ed. 1984); D. Price, Beef, Production, Science and Economics, Application, and Reality (1985); J. Ubaldi and E. Grossman, Jack Ubaldi's Meat Book (1987).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Our goal is to address the impact of these forces on meatpackers' competitive strategies using Porter's "Five Forces" analysis.
The meatpacker voluntarily suspended operations early this month, after the U.S.
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One of the former meatpacker's victims was Queens University student Stephan McCann, 21, who was kidnapped in front of his girlfriend at Millfield in October 1976.
OSHA proposed fining one large meatpacker a total of $5.69 million for not providing a safe and healthful workplace in relation to ergonomic concerns; the company, the union and OSHA finally reduced the fine to $975,000.
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(6) Direct vertical integration occurs when the merger involves a change of ownership, such as when a cattle feedlot is acquired outright by a meatpacker. (7) But, the unique nature of the live cattle supply chain affords meatpackers considerable flexibility in their ability to achieve the control or leverage they seek over the live cattle supply chain without ever having to invest in land, brick, or chattels.