This process produces extensive mechanical turbulence
and low-level wind shear from the ground up to about 5000 feet.
The complexity of the local terrain and how it creates four unique wind patterns that can generate severe mechanical turbulence
at times, provides pilots with very tough challenges.
Focus your route selections on avoiding areas and seasons most prone to both atmospheric and mechanical turbulence
, including mountains, high desert in the summer and fall, and over water.
The bubbles emerging from the lower tube influence heat transfer rates for the tube above it due to additional mechanical turbulence
This instability significantly modulates the two main types of low level turbulence: thermal and mechanical turbulence.
Finally rough terrain is an ingredient that amplifies mechanical turbulence and produces deeper, more intense eddies.
A good rule of thumb for mechanical turbulence is if surface winds are over 30 knots, expect moderate turbulence.
Mechanical turbulence occurs when strong winds interact with objects on the ground.
Mechanical turbulence can be carried through a deep layer and strengthened in an unstable air mass, so if there's strong solar heating, the turbulence will be deeper.
Mountain wave turbulence results from the mechanical turbulence of strong winds impinging on a mountain range.
An unstable atmosphere with thermals and convection will add thermal turbulence to the mechanical turbulence of the chinook.
The high wind near the ground itself is broken up into smaller circulations by friction, producing mechanical turbulence and wind shear.