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Media

(mē`dēə), ancient country of W Asia whose actual boundaries cannot be defined, occupying generally what is now W Iran and S Azerbaijan. It extended from the Caspian Sea to the Zagros Mts. The Medes were an Indo-European people who spoke an Iranian language closely akin to old Persian. Some scholars claim they were an Aryanized people from Turan. Since there are no Median records, Assyrian and Greek sources must be relied upon for Median history. The Medes extended their rule over PersiaPersia
, old alternate name for the Asian country Iran. The article Iran contains a description of the geography and economy of the modern country and a short account of its history since the Arab invasion of the 7th cent.
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 during the reign of Sargon (d. 705 B.C.) and under Cyaxares captured Nineveh in 612 B.C.; they were the first people subject to Assyria to secure their freedom. The dynasty continued until the rule of AstyagesAstyages
, fl. 6th cent. B.C., king of the Medes (584–c.550 B.C.), son and successor of Cyaxares. His rule was harsh, and he was unpopular. His daughter is alleged to have married the elder Cambyses and was said to be the mother of Cyrus the Great, who rebelled against
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, when it was overthrown (c.550 B.C.) by Cyrus the Great and united with the Persian Empire. In the 2d cent. B.C. Media became part of the Parthian kingdom and was later ruled by the Romans.

media

see MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION.

Media

 

a historical region, later a kingdom in the northwestern part of the Iran Plateau.

The Medes are first mentioned in Assyrian annals of the second half of the ninth century B.C. As early as the ninth and eighth centuries B.C., an Iranian-speaking element appeared in Media, later becoming predominant. The ninth and eighth centuries B.C. in Media evidently constituted a period of transition from a military democracy to an early slaveholding society. During that time, the Medes waged a struggle against Assyria, which had seized part of their lands.

Judging from Assyrian sources, the kingdom of Media arose in the 670’s B.C., and Ecbatana became its capital. Under King Cyaxares (ruled from 625 or 624 to 584 B.C.), Media became a great power in the ancient East. In a short time the Medes seized Manna and, in alliance with Babylonia, crushed the Assyrian state and conquered Urartu and other territories.

In 550 or 549 B.C., Media was conquered by the Persians and made a satrapy of the Achaemenid empire. An independent Median state was restored only in the last quarter of the fourth century B.C., but it occupied only part of the former territory of Media, that in southern Azerbaijan, which later came to be called Media (or Media Minor, Median Atropatene, and Atropatene).

Media occupies a prominent place in the political, economic, and cultural history of antiquity. Zoroastrianism became widespread in Media. The Avesta was evidently codified in Atropatene in the fourth century B.C. Some of the Medes, having merged into the autochthonic tribes of Atropatene, played a significant role in the ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijanis.

REFERENCES

D’iakonov, I. M. Istoriia Midii ot drevneishikh vremen do kontsa IVveka do n. e. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Aliev, I. Istoriia Midii. Baku, 1960.
Grantovskii, E. A. Ranniaia istoriia iranskikh piemen Perednei Azii. Moscow, 1970.
Cameron, G. G. History of Early Iran. Chicago, 1936.

I. ALIEV

media

[′mē·dē·ə]
(histology)
The middle, muscular layer in the wall of a vein, artery, or lymph vessel.

media

1. the middle layer of the wall of a blood or lymph vessel
2. one of the main veins in the wing of an insect

Media

an ancient country of SW Asia, south of the Caspian Sea: inhabited by the Medes; overthrew the Assyrian Empire in 612 bc in alliance with Babylonia; conquered by Cyrus the Great in 550 bc; corresponds to present-day NW Iran

media

(1) Materials that hold data in any form or that allow data to pass through them, including paper, transparencies, multipart forms, hard, floppy and optical discs, magnetic tape, wire, cable and fiber. Media is the plural of "medium."

(2) Any form of information, including music and movies. May also refer to CDs, DVDs, videotapes and other prerecorded material. See multimedia.

(3) The trade press (magazines, newspapers, etc.). See electronic media.
References in periodicals archive ?
Glossarium Mediae Latinitatis Cataloniae, mots llatins i romanics documentats en fonts catalanes de l'any 800 al 1100, fasc.
Turner therefore rightly concludes (1927: 304) that h fronting in case of aspirated tenuis occurred later than that of aspirated mediae.
Levene's absurd grammatical comment goes on: "The first [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which could also be read as a', is probably due to the root from which this noun is derived, which could be construed as the mediae y/w [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] rather than the mediae geminatae [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
As a pre-condition to theological multiculturalism, the theological reflection on inculturation cannot be associated with a generative theology that begets liturgical rites, but it can be associated with a theologia viae mediae, a medium way of reflection between text and context, between faith and culture.
The Christianity of the consummate craftsman Miguel Abenali, who understands and honors both object and word in their proper relations, stands at the juncture of the novel's myriad strands of plot and theme, representing at once religious, social, and semiotic viae mediae through the chaos of Reformation Europe.
The Bollandists' Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina Antiquae et Mediae Aetatis, i (Brussels, 1898-1899), 225.
42 The manuscript reading sanctiatus is a seemingly non-existent form of which there is no trace either in Du Cange's Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, ed.
VII (Paris, 1851), 1819 C; Ducange, Glossarium Mediae et Intimae Graecitatis (Lyon, 1688), 1531 (his examples are borrowed in the revised Stephanus).
The expressions middle ages and medieval became a fixed part of the scholarly vocabulary with the publication of such basic works as Du Cange's Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis [Glossary to the Writers of Medieval and Late Latin] in 1678.
En una comunidad nitrofila y ruderal, abierta (cobertura: 45%), dominada por terofitos de Stellarietea mediae, como Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus oleraceus, Bromus hordeaceus, y con presencia, ademas, de especies no terofiticas, como Lactuca serriola y Dittrichia viscosa (de Artemisietea vulgaris).
Contractor name : MEDIAE, MANDATAIRE DU GROUPEMENT MEDIAE / CAP LS
1953' from the sub-coastal habitats of the Venice Lagoon and classified it in the Sisymbrion officinalis (Chenopodietalia albi, Stellarietea mediae in his classification scheme) as a vegetation unit substituting the Hordeetum murini on the sandy coastal fallow lands.