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A partition separating adjacent parts.
The space in the middle of the chest between the two pleurae.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in man, an anatomic area in the thoracic cavity, bounded anteriorly by the sternum, posteriorly by the thoracic region of the spine, laterally by the pleurae and lung surfaces, and inferiorly by the diaphragm; an arbitrary horizontal line drawn across the upper edge of the sternum is considered to be the upper boundary.

A distinction is made between anterior and posterior mediastinal regions, which are divided by the roots of the lungs. The anterior mediastinum contains the heart and heart sac (the pericardium), the ascending aorta and its arch (including the arteries issuing from them), the pulmonary trunk, the venae cavae, the pulmonary veins, and the phrenic nerves. The posterior mediastinum contains the thoracic portion of the descending aorta and its branches, the esophagus, the azygos and hemiazygos veins, the thoracic lymphatic duct, and the vagus and splanchnic nerves.

Closed injuries of mediastinal organs occur in cases of contusions, compression of the chest, and sternal fractures. Upon injury to the lungs or bronchi and the accumulation of air, pneumomediastinum and the compression of mediastinal organs may occur. Open mediastinal injuries are associated with injuries of the lungs and often of the organs of the abdominal cavity. Mediastinal injuries are treated surgically. The most common diseases of the mediastinum include mediastinitis, substernal extension of an enlarged thyroid gland, cysts and tumors of mediastinal organs, and lesions of mediastinal lymph nodes, for example, in cases of lymphogranulomatosis.


Petrovskii, B. V. Khirurgiia sredosteniia. Moscow, 1960.
Elizarovskii, S. I., and G. I. Kondrat’ev. Khirurgicheskaia anatomiia sredosteniia (atlas). Moscow, 1961.
Gol’bert, Z. V., and G. A. Lavnikova. Opukholi i kistv sredosteniia. Moscow, 1965. ’
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Median sternotomy was done and the mass was found lying in antero-superior mediastinum adherent to mediastinal pleurae and pericardium covering SVC and right ventricle (Figure-3).
Present study is a retrospective study constituting of about a total of (43) cases of mediastinal lesions.
The target area of high-medium-differentiated mid-thoracic ESCC radiotherapy includes only the mid-mediastinal lymph node drainage region, and that of high-medium-differentiated lower-thoracic ESCC radiotherapy includes the lymph node drainage area in the middle and lower mediastinal and abdominal regions; and the radiotherapy target area of poorly differentiated mid-thoracic esophagus squamous carcinoma includes the mid-mediastinal and abdominal lymphatic drainage area, and that of poorly differentiated lower-thoracic ESCC includes the lymph node drainage area of the middle and lower mediastinal and abdominal areas.
The mediastinal pleura was opened until the left parietal pleura was visible.
In the past patient suspected to have sarcoidosis with negative transbronchial biopsy were referred for mediastinoscopy, the availability of EBUS TBNA is a less Invasive safe and more economical alternative for obtaining a pathologic diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes.
Patients with anterior mediastinal teratomas of the mature type, generally carries a good prognosis after complete resection of tumour.
Pediatric mediastinal masses are best approached by considering the types of masses that may occur in each mediastinal compartment.
Mediastinal Mullerian cysts follow a benign course with no reported recurrence so that surgical excision is the treatment of choice.
Mediastinal parathyroid cyst causing persistent hyperparathyroidism: Case report and review of the literature.
All five were found to have mediastinal lymphadenopathy on surveillance CT scans as part of regular follow-up.
Therefore, the mediastinal anatomy is complicated, and the tissue biopsy is difficult.