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in law, type of intervention in which the disputing parties accept the offer of a third party to recommend a solution for their controversy. Mediation has long been a part of international law, frequently involving the use of an international commission, in a process known as by conciliation. Mediation differs from arbitration in being a diplomatic rather than a judicial procedure; thus, the parties to the dispute are not bound to accept the mediator's recommendation. Resort to mediation has become increasingly frequent, both for internal and international disputes. The Declaration of Paris (1856) expressed the hope that the signatories would ask for mediation in their disputes. At the Second Hague Conference (1907), the right of friendly powers to offer mediation was recognized. The Covenant of the League of Nations provided that the whole League, acting through the League Council, should offer conciliation, and the Charter of the United Nations requires all members to submit disputes to mediation on recommendation of the Security Council. Mediation has been successful in many cases of international conflict. The United States served as mediator between Bolivia and Chile (1882) and between Russia and Japan (1905). The United Nations served as a mediator in the conflict in IsraelIsrael
, officially State of Israel, republic (2015 est. pop. 8,065,000, including Israelis in occupied Arab territories), 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km), SW Asia, on the Mediterranean Sea.
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 in 1948. In 1966, the Soviet Union mediated the border clashes between India and China. The Secretary-General of the United Nations mediated successfully in several international disputes, particularly that over Netherlands New Guinea (see PapuaPapua
or Irian Jaya
, province (2014 est pop. 3,486,000), 123,180 sq mi (319,036 sq km), Indonesia. Comprising most of the western half of New Guinea and a number of offshore islands, it is Indonesia's largest province; the extreme western peninsulas and offshore
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). Mediation has become increasingly important for internal disagreements as well, particularly in labor disputes. In the United States, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service works toward a healthy relationship between labor and management, mediating disputes where necessary and promoting collective bargaining. Many state and local governments in the U.S. have similar organizations, each generally having the power to intervene when the public interest appears to be in jeopardy. National mediation services are also common in other nations, particularly among the Western democracies.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in international law, a form of peaceful settlement of disputes between states by means of negotiations with the participation of a third state, the mediator, on the basis of conditions advanced by the mediator. Mediation differs from good offices in that the mediator suggests specific proposals to serve as the basis of negotiations and of the settlement of the disputes.

The procedure of mediation is regulated by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the Charter of the United Nations (art. 33). According to the UN Charter, various conventions, and current practice, the mediator may offer his services upon the request of the disputing parties, upon his own initiative, or upon the initiative of powers not party to the dispute. There have been times when the Soviet government has accepted the mediation of other states and has itself been a mediator. For instance, in 1945 the USSR accepted the mediation of the French provisional government in negotiations with Switzerland on the status of persons interned during the war.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1990 DeLancey found a close match between Hare lo and Tibetan hdug (an immediate or sensory evidential) on the one hand and between Hare lo and Turkish -mIs (a mediative) on the other hand.
According to the didactic and ergonomic approach [16], the cognitive and mediative components relate to the choices made by the teacher in the spatial, temporal and mathematical organisation of the lessons.
They may have to use this approach because of the unwillingness of government officials to recognize their mediative status.
The first is a shift from judgment to planning; rather than articulating standards for resolving contested custody cases, a mediative family-law regime focuses on assisting disputants in crafting and implementing individualized postseparation-parenting arrangements.
The Liberal Democrat leader normally sits through Prime Minister's Questions with an expression which ranges from mediative to pained but the thought of being present for yesterday's postmortem on the Euro-walkout was clearly too much too bear.
The "mediative role" of early childhood teachers, recommended by Bredekamp and Rosegrant (1995, pp.
mediative approach, however, because it "assum[es] that the FAA
This is why some analysts began to pose the question "whether the operation had turned into an internal mediative, peacebuilding/development role, rather than a defensive hedge against spillover effects from neighboring states." (14)
At the same time, the Immigrant Associations can teach the immigrant families to play a significant mediative role in order to see how important education is for their children.
totally unacceptable and always punishable by law), would deserve a more "tolerant" response (i.e., mediative responses).
Graham and Homel's book moves beyond this unsophisticated explanation to explore the various factors that may be predictive and mediative of barroom aggression and violence, providing an international summary of research.
Her opening gambit thus solicits her reader insistently, suggesting that both writer and reader, through the mediative figures of narrator and narratee, are witnesses to this first scene, asking her reader to visualize the scene ("consider the thick crossbars") and to put himself or herself in the scene.