# error

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## error,

in law: see appealappeal,
in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court.
.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Error

in automatic control systems, the difference between the set point and the actual value of the quantity being controlled in a control process. At any given moment, the error can be regarded as the sum of the static error—the error under steady-state conditions—and the dynamic error—the error in a transient response. In the statistical analysis of automatic control systems, the distinction between steady-state and transient errors loses its meaning, and the quality of performance of such a system is evaluated by criteria associated with the probability characteristics of the error. An example of such a criterion is the minimum mean-square error.

## Error

When a number a is taken as the approximate value of a quantity whose exact value is x, the error of a is the difference xa, which is also called the absolute error. The ratio of xa to a is called the relative error. An error is usually characterized by indicating its maximum possible value. The maximum possible value of the absolute error is the number Δ (a) such that ǀxaǀ ≤ Δ(a). The maximum possible value of the relative error is the number δ(a) such that

The maximum values of relative errors are often expressed as percentages. The numbers Δ(a) and δ(a) are taken as small as possible.

If a is the approximate value of x with a maximum absolute error of Δ(a), this fact can be written x = a ± Δ(a). The analogous expression for the relative error is x = a(1 ± δ(a)).

The maximum values of the absolute and relative errors indicate the maximum possible divergence between x and a. In addition to these values, an error is often characterized by the nature of its origin and by the frequency of occurrence of different values of xa. The methods of probability theory are used in this approach to errors.

The error of the result in the numerical solution of a problem is caused by inaccuracies intrinsic to the formulation of the problem and to the means used to solve it. Errors stemming from the inaccuracy of a mathematical description of an actual process—for example, from an inaccurate statement of the original data—are said to be inherent errors. Errors of method arise because of the inaccuracy of the method used in solving the problem. Computational errors are the result of inaccuracies in computations.

When computations are performed, initial errors pass in succession from operation to operation, accumulating and giving rise to new errors. The appearance and propagation of errors in computational work are studied by numerical analysis.

### REFERENCES

Berezin, I. S., and N. P. Zhidkov. Metody vychislenii, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1966.
Bakhvalov, N. S. Chislennye metody. Moscow, 1973.

G. D. KIM

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

## error

[′er·ər]
(computer science)
An incorrect result arising from approximations used in numerical methods, rather than from a human mistake or computer malfunction.
(science and technology)
Any discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured quantity and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value of that quantity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## Error

Breeches Bible, the
the Geneva Bible, so dubbed because it stated that Adam and Eve made themselves breeches. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 101]
Cortez
alluded to in a poem by Keats, mistaken for Balboa, as discoverer of Pacific Ocean. [Br. Poetry: “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”]
Wicked Bible, the
misprinted a commandment as “Thou shalt commit adultery.” [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 102]
seacoast of Bohemia
Shakespearean setting in a land with no seacoast. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare The Winter’s Tale, III,iii]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

## error

(1)
A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.

## error

(programming)
A mental mistake made by a programmer that may result in a program fault.

## error

(3)
(verb) What a program does when it stops as result of a programming error.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nurses are often blamed individually and as a profession for medication errors, because it is directly after the point of administration that the actual or potential harm from a medication error occurs (Wright, 2013).
Full disclosure of medication errors and transparency in an inherently litigious healthcare culture is difficult but necessary to develop risk reduction strategies for improved medication safety practices.
What are the most common causes of medication errors? Poor communication between your doctors; Incomplete patient information; Doctors ignoring a patient's medical history; Drug names that sound alike and medications that look alike; and Medical abbreviations.
The national coordinating council for medication error reporting and prevention (NCCMERP) gives definition of medication error that any preventable event that can be the reason or lead to irrational medicine usage or patient harm, while the medicine is with the healthcare worker, patient or consumer1-3.
To date, a number of meta-analysis and review studies have been carried out on medication errors in Iran.
Data from the Medication Variance Reporting System (MVRS), which tracks medication errors in the hospital, were evaluated for 3 months before and 4 weeks after the project.
The results of a systematic review of 33 studies suggest exercising particular precaution during drug preparation and administration.18 Interruptions during drug preparation, deficiencies in knowledge and skills, workload, lack of continuity, and communication failure between team members are important factors in medical errors.22,23 Administration of the incorrect drug dose (36.1%) and administration of the incorrect drug (26.4%) were reported as the most common causes of medication errors.24
The majority of studies conducted in paediatrics reporting medication errors declared medication error frequencies of between 11% and 54%.
Of the 117 admissions, 111 (94.9%) experienced at least one iatrogenic medication error. Medication errors were spontaneously reported in 29 cases (26.1%), while an additional 82 errors (73.9%) were detected by means of electronic chart review.
Nurses have a very significant responsibility in preventing medication errors from happening since they play the main role in drug administration [5].

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