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in Islamic countries, a school, historically usually one devoted to higher education in religious studies, but the term may refer to any school. Privately endowed, often by royal or wealthy families, and attended mainly by poorer students who also receive free room and board, traditional madrasas have offered a free education in Islamic theology and law and related subjects, mainly accomplished by memorization and recitation of religious texts. For many, they long provided the only accessible source of higher education. Over time, the curriculum of many madrasas broadened to include logic, mathematics, history, and other disciplines, but other have continued to focus primarily on traditional Islamic subjects. Madrasas have taught young men in major Islamic cities since at least the 12th cent., with some documented as far back as the 9th cent. During the 1980s some madrasas, especially in Pakistan, became centers for the recruitment of volunteers fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan and later sometimes supplied recruits for the TalibanTaliban
or Taleban
, Islamic fundamentalist militia of Afghanistan and later Pakistan, originally consisting mainly of Sunni Pashtun religious students from Afghanistan who were educated and trained in Pakistan.
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. Some madrasas also have been training grounds for Al QaedaAl Qaeda
or Al Qaida
[Arab.,=the base], Sunni Islamic terrorist organization with the stated goals of uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and other Islamic extremists, leading to the misconception in the West that all madrasas are radical Islamist institutions.


See R. W. Hefner and M. W. Zaman, ed., Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education (2006); J. Malik, Madrasas in South Asia: Teaching Terror? (2007); F. A. Noor et al., ed., The Madrasas in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages (2009), S. H. Ali, Islam and Education: Conflict and Conformity in Pakistan (2009); N. Gupta, Madrasas in Eastern India (2009).



a Muslim secondary and higher school, preparing clergymen, teachers for Muslim primary schools (makatib ), and government civil servants in Near and Middle Eastern countries.

The madrasa became widespread from the ninth through the 13th century in countries where Islamic populations predominated, including certain areas of prerevolutionary Russia (Bukhara, Samarkand, Kazan, and Ufa). Madrasas were usually built near large mosques. The program of studies consisted of Arabic, theology, law, history, and certain applied disciplines. In the Middle Ages, madrasas were not only centers of Muslim theology but had a definite cultural importance as well.

The reorganization of the public educational system that was carried out in many Islamic countries during the 1960’s led to the formation of two basic types of madrasa: the secular madrasa, a school of secondary or higher learning within the public educational system; and the Koranic madrasa, preparing clergymen. Education in the secular madrasas is tuition-free; boys and girls are separated. In addition to the state and theological madrasas, a few private madrasas, which charge tuition, are in operation. Study of the Koran is obligatory in all secular madrasas. Graduates of a madrasa have the right to enter a university.

In the USSR, the Mir-Arab Madrasa in Bukhara, which offers secondary theological education, is in operation (as of 1973).


As an architectural structure, the madrasa originated in the eastern part of the Muslim world in the tenth and 11th centuries. The early madrasas are exemplified by the Farjek Madrasa in Bukhara, a tenth-century structure that has not survived, and the 11th-century Nizamiyyeh Madrasa in Khargird, Iran. Madrasas were built in the Near East in the 12th and 13th centuries, for example, the 12th-century al-Nuriyah al-Kubra Madrasa in Damascus, and the 13th-century Mustansiriyyah Madrasa in Baghdad. The building of madrasas began in North Africa in the 13th and 14th centuries (such as the 13th-century Saffarin Madrasa in Fes and the 14th-century Hasan Madrasa in Cairo).

The one- or two-story madrasa consists of cells, a mosque, and a lecture hall, built around a rectangular courtyard. While sharing common features, madrasas of different regions differ in their layout and construction. Thus, in Middle Asia the mosque and lecture hall are located within the building, along both sides of a portal that is on the axis of the main facade, while in Syria and Egypt, the lecture hall and mosque occupy loggias that open onto the courtyard. In Asia Minor, the madrasa courtyard is usually covered by a large dome. In Asia, vaults are used for roofing, and in North Africa, trussed tile-covered roofs.

Madrasas are decorated with carvings in stucco, stone, and wood, carved terra-cotta, and glazed tiles. The 14th-century Bu-Inaniyah Madrasa in Fes, the Ulugh Beg Madrasa in Samarkand (15th century), and the Mir-Arab Madrasa in Bukhara (16th century) are among the outstanding examples of world architecture.


References in periodicals archive ?
Halbuki Sovyet rejiminden once, yalniz Buhara'da 185 medrese, 1900'lerde Turkistan bolgesinde 336 medrese bulunmaktaydi.
Bu medrese teskilatina mukabil vaziyet almak ve nesriyatimizi teksif etmek mecburiyetindeyiz.
Was enrollment at Istanbul's Suleymaniyye medrese in the offing?
The presenting of gifts, from the sultan's own hand, session after session, year after year, to hundreds of mid-level ulema was a ritual of incorporation,33 symbolically merging medrese and palace.
A strikingly similar description is given in a school inspectors report on four Kazan madrasas in 1906 (Gorokhova, Medrese Kazani, 144).
Bu eserler: Melikgazi Turbe ve Medresesi, Cami-i Kebir, Hoca Hasan Medresesi, Sifahi Medresesi, Giyasiye Medresesi, Burc (Yogunburc), Buyuk Kale, Hunat Cami, Hunat Medresesi ve Turbesi, Medrese (Seraceddin Medresesi), Haci Kilic Camisi, Haci Kilic Medresesi, Sahabiye Medresesi, Doner Kumbet, Ali Cafer Kumbeti, Kosk Medresesi, Hastane civari Turbe, Emirzade Ali Bey Turbesi, Seyh Mueyyit Cesmesi, Seyyit Burhanettin Turbesi, Serceli Kumbet, Cifte Kumbet ve Boyaci Kapisinda Medrese (Hatuniye)'dir.
The first medrese was opened in Cyprus just after the conquest of Nicosia in 1570 and lasted until in the first quarter of 20th century and had a curriculum mainly based on religious studies.
Hasmet, Abdullah Pasa'ya medrese talebiyle sundugu bir kasidede haric rutbesini hatirlatarak adi gecen rutbeyi bir daha istemistir:
Also the building of the Cifte Medrese upon the will of Sultan Gevher Nesibe and the attempt to continue and complete the construction of the complex of buildings that was initiated by Alaeddin Keykubat by his wife Mahperi (Hunat) Hatun and the patronage of Sivasi Hatun for the construction of the Develi Great Mosque as well as the building of Barsama Mosque by Mahupeyker Hatice Hatun are such activities.
hakkinda bilgiler veren mazbut akar listesi ile cami, mescit, medrese, turbe, cecme, sebiller, hastane, kutuphane, sarniclar, mezarliklar vb.
Atlasi (1876-1938), typically, was born to an imam's family, studied at his father's mekteb then at a medrese near Orenburg, and became a teacher at his own medrese and an elected representative to the Duma in St.