melanosome


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melanosome

[mə′lan·ə‚sōm]
(cell and molecular biology)
An organelle which contains melanin and in which tyrosinase activity is not demonstrable.
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(8,9) Many have suggested defective transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes.
The pathogenesis of DUH is still unknown, but one hypothesis suggests that it should be considered a disorder of the melanosome synthesis rate or activity and not a disorder in the number of melanocytes [28].
Several weeks after differentiation, established melanocyte markers were positive in these hiPSC-derived-melanocytes, and melanosome formation could be detected as well.
Biochemical and physiological studies demonstrated that SL might be involved in a variety of physiological actions including reproduction [3-5] smoltification [6] acid-base balance [7] background adaptation [8,9] phosphate transport [10] melanosome aggregation [11,12] and immune response [13].
Different clinical findings of Hermansky Pudlak syndrome occur as a result of dysfunction of lysosome-related organels including melanosome, platelet granules and lamellar parts of type 2 alveolar cells.
Following cleavage the newly created N-terminus acts as a tethered receptor-activating ligand.PAR-2 is expressed in keratinocytes and enhances the phagocytosis rate of keratinocytes which leads to increased melanosome transfer and skin pigmentation.
At the same time, a research team from The University of Texas at Austin, the University of Akron, the China University of Geosciences and four other Chinese institutions, unexpectedly discovered that ancient maniraptoran dinosaurs, paravians, and living mammals and birds uniquely shared the evolutionary development of diverse melanosome shapes and sizes.
TRP-1 is expressed exclusively in melanosomes where it plays a role in the maintenance of melanosome structure.
Mutations in a host of genes have been described that result in the failure of protein delivery to the melanosome. The majority of these comprise the various forms of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.
Migmatization of gneisses is demonstrated by the evolution of significantly striped rocks formed by melanosome abounding in biotite and leucosome consisting of quartz, plagioclase and, to a lesser degree, of potassium spar.
In skin, it is a mixture of pigmented biopolymers that is synthesized in a unique organelle, the melanosome of melanocytes.