melatonin


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melatonin:

see pineal glandpineal gland
, small organ (about the size of a pea) situated in the brain. Long considered vestigial in humans, the structure, which is also called the pineal body or the epiphysis, is present in most vertebrates.
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melatonin

[‚mel·ə′tōn·ən]
(biochemistry)
A hormone secreted by the pineal gland that acts on melanophores in the skins of amphibians and reptiles to concentrate the melanin in the center of the cells, lightening the body surface; in higher vertebrates it conveys information about time that influences reproduction and circadian physiology.
References in periodicals archive ?
Melatonin improves mitochondrial function in inguinal white adipose tissue of Zucker diabetic fatty rats.
Five experimental extenders were prepared by adding melatonin at the rate of 0.
This is because excessive amounts of melatonin can suppress brain chemicals, which results in depression, characterised by acute anxiety, lack of energy and difficulty in looking on the positive side of life.
In the study, 38 patients aged 1-18 years with AD involving at least 5% of their body surface area and sleep problems that occurred more than 3 days per week were randomized to receive oral melatonin (3 mg/ day) or a matching placebo at bedtime for 4 weeks, then crossed over to the alternate assignment for another 4 weeks.
Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized by the pineal gland at night under normal environmental conditions.
Luzindole antagonist MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors [23] (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) were prepared daily in a minimum volume of ethanol 1% and sterile water for intraperitoneal injections.
When this happens, melatonin is often the missing piece of the puzzle.
Melatonin is used for numerous conditions, ranging from fibromyalgia to irritable bowel syndrome.
Group A was treated as control, group B and C received 37 mg/kg STZ Intraperitoneally (i/p) once at the start of experiment, whereas group C additionally received 10mg/100 ml of melatonin (MEL) 3-days prior to STZ administration.
According to a 2015 study published in the Journal of Pediatric Child Health, melatonin has been increasingly prescribed for children with sleep disorders; however, it has never undergone formal safety testing and has shown "profound effects" on the cardiovascular, reproductive, and immune systems of animals.
A number of medical studies have shown that melatonin can increase the activity of bone-building cells called osteoblasts as well as the actual thickness of the bone itself.