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Related to Melioidosis: Burkholderia pseudomallei


(veterinary medicine)
An endemic bacterial disease, primarily of rodents but occasionally communicable to humans, caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei and characterized by infectious granulomas.



(pneumoenteritis, pseudoglanders), an acute infectious zoonotic disease.

The causative agent of melioidosis is the microorganism Malleomyces pseudomallei, which is similar to the glanders bacillus in antigenic and morphological properties and is pathogenic for rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, mice, dogs, and sheep. Rats, the main reservoir of infection, excrete the causative agent with their urine and feces. Under natural conditions, melioidosis is transmitted from animal to animal by the ingestion of food infected with the discharges of the diseased rats.

Melioidosis is found in Southeast Asia, Australia, and Madagascar. Cases have occurred in the USA, Indonesia, and the Philippine Islands. No verifiable cases of melioidosis in man have been recorded on the territory of the USSR. Infection from humans affected with the disease has not been observed. Melioidosis is transmitted from sick animals through food or water. The condition is manifested by diverse symptoms resembling those of glanders, plague, cholera, and certain other diseases. Preventive measures include exterminating rats and protecting food products and drinking water from contamination with the excretions of diseased animals. Hospitalization of the patient is imperative. The focus of the disease should be disinfected.


Melioidosis in animals may be acute, subacute, or chronic. In sheep and goats symptoms of the disease include cough, polyarthritis, and affection of the prescapular lymph nodes. In dogs, cats, and rodents, symptoms include diarrhea, purulent conjunctivitis, vaginitis, and rhinitis, with the formation of irregularly shaped ulcers and abscessed lymph nodes. Cachexia develops. Diagnosis of the condition is made on the basis of the clinical symptoms, autopsy, and bacteriological examination. A specific course of treatment has not yet been developed, and attempts to cure the diseased animals have proved ineffective.

Melioidosis can be prevented in animals by exterminating rodents, the principal natural reservoir of the infection. When an animal is suspected of having contracted the disease, it should be isolated and subjected to bacteriological examination. If the condition is confirmed, the animal should be killed and cremated, with care taken to avoid infection.


Epizootologiia. Edited by R. F. Sosov. Moscow, 1969.
Rudnev, G. P. Antropozoonozy. Moscow, 1970.
References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical guideline for diagnosis and management of melioidosis.
Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and Oceania (the region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) occurring mainly in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and northern Australia.
La melioidosis se adquiere por la exposicion ambiental al bacilo gramnegativo Burkholderia pseudomallei, anteriormente denominado Pseudomonas pseudomallei.
Murray Valley encephalitis, Ross River fever, scrub typhus and dengue could increase their distribution * possibly of malaria in the Northern Territory, especially in the Kakadu region, and yellow fever in north Queensland * dengue fever may occur as far south as Tasmania by the year 2030 * diarrhoeal illnesses, amoebic meningoencephalitis, melioidosis and poisoning from cynobacterial (blue-green algae) blooms liable to increase
Cutaneous Melioidosis Cluster Caused by Contaminated Wound Irrigation Fluid
The company's inhaled ciprofloxacin formulations, including Linhaliq, are also product candidates for treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, and for the prevention and treatment of high threat and bioterrorism infections, such as inhaled tularemia, pneumonic plague, melioidosis, Q fever and inhaled anthrax.
Leading causes of classic pyrexia of unknown origin Infection Neoplasms Tuberculosis Lymphoma Occult bacterial abscess Renal carcinoma Endocarditis Atrial myxoma Brucellosis Infection Connective tissue Tuberculosis Still's disease Occult bacterial abscess Variants of rheumatoid arthritis Endocarditis Systemic lupus erythematosus Brucellosis Temporal arteritis Polymyalgia rheumatica Infection Other (geographical) Tuberculosis Familial Mediterranean fever Occult bacterial abscess Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease Endocarditis Melioidosis Brucellosis Pyrexia of unknown origin defined as temperature >38.
Beaumont, "Trimethoprim as a possible therapy for nocardiosis and melioidosis," The Medical Journal of Australia, vol.
Melioidosis or Whitmore's disease is an infectious saprophytic disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Burkholderia pseudomallei produces diverse symptoms referred to as melioidosis, ranging from skin ulcers to septic shock.
The natural occurring bacteria called Melioidosis has caught the attention of the US Government because of its potential to be used as biological weapon.