The critical stress in the case of a membrane stress state for thin elastic shells may be presented by a similar formula in many cases: of a closed spherical shell under uniformly distributed normal pressure, of a circular cylindrical shell under central axial loading, and of a conical shell of revolution under central axial loading.
In his monograph General Theory of Shells and Its Applications in Engineering  Vlasov pointed out the difference between shells of the revolution with a positive or a negative Gaussian curvature in the sense of materializing the membrane stress state.
Alumae determined the critical value of the axisymmetric membrane stress state for a long catenoid shell under contour loading.
t] the membrane stress in the web in post-critical stage, b, web panel width, c, distance between the hinges formed in the flange, d, web depth, t, web thickness, [M.
A suitable value for the angle of inclination of the tensile membrane stress [[theta].
4) the positive membrane stress
diminishes the surface compression.
18) In addition, tissue cells surrounding the blood vessels may also experience this increased membrane stress during capillary sampling, thereby further increasing the potassium levels in capillary blood.
Membrane stress increases cation permeability in red cells.
R] (equation 6) in the flange ring consists of two components, the bending stress caused by the radial bending moment and the membrane stress
caused by in-plane surface loads on the inside diameter.
The equibiaxial membrane stress at the pole of the inflated membrane is given by (20):
where [Sigma] is the membrane stress, P is the pressure, [r.
Upon synthesis, the new rational theories replace the many empirical formulas currently in use for shear, torsion and membrane stress