training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(2013) aimed to analyse if adaptive working memory training would improve fluid intelligence, beyond the level of specific measures.
De Beni, "Working memory training in older adults: evidence of transfer and maintenance effects," Psychology and Aging, vol.
Working memory training for children with attention problems or hyperactivity: A school-based pilot study.
Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: a systematic review.
Far more than memory training, these programs can be tailored to each resident with a unique login, including specific types of congitive functions like calculating math, multitasking, dissecting complex problems, improving reaction times, making decisions and adapting to environmental changes.
This study aims to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of a noncomputerized attention and memory training programme for people with schizophrenia, created in a developing country.
The MFE has been used to determine everyday functioning in cases of: acquired brain injury, primarily in rehabilitation tasks (Wilson, 1987; MacKinley & Hickox, 1988; Quemada et al., 2003), dementia (Seltzer, Vasterling, Hale, & Khurana, 1995), multiple sclerosis (Richardson, 1996), epilepsy (Goldstein & Polkey, 1992), to study memory in children without impairment as well as with learning disorders (Drysdale et al., 2004), to study subjective memory in elderly adults (Sunderland, Watts, Baddeley, & Harris, 1986), to determine the results of memory training in the elderly (Cavallini, Pagnin, & Vecchi, 2003; Montejo, Montenegro, Reinoso, de Andres, & Claver, 1999), and to assess the memory failures of tobacco smokers compared to non-smokers (Heffernan et al., 2005).
Associative Mood and Memory Training facilitates recall by creating moods to evoke emotions that are associated with particular memories, or recreating a mood state where information was learned, therefore providing better access to the memory.
The authors review standard medication and non-standard treatment options such as diet, biofeedback, allergy testing, memory training, and counseling.
Functional MRI (fMRI) data were analyzed for 27 of the early psychosis patients and 30 healthy controls subjects who met memory training criteria.
In order to help students expand their memory capacity, ITPs could incorporate STM/working memory training as part of their curriculum.