training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
2013) aimed to analyse if adaptive working memory training would improve fluid intelligence, beyond the level of specific measures.
Thus, although the evidence for memory training is positive, firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the association of any modifiable risk factor with cognitive decline or Alzheimer disease.
There have been several studies that have examined memory training in a classroom setting, including our own, but there hasn't been much that has examined computerized brain training programs, except for research on the Posit Science programs.
Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: a systematic review.
Currently, there is growing interest in mental stimulation in general and memory training in particular, both in popular science (web sites, interactive cell phone games, consoles, etc.
The authors review standard medication and non-standard treatment options such as diet, biofeedback, allergy testing, memory training, and counseling.
Functional MRI (fMRI) data were analyzed for 27 of the early psychosis patients and 30 healthy controls subjects who met memory training criteria.
Memory can be improved using three methods: pharmaceutical, food supplements and various forms of memory training.
Improve your memory In the AJGP study; researchers provided study participants with a six-week "Memory Fitness Program" that included memory training, physical activity, stress reduction, and a healthy diet.
Extensive evidence shows that NMDA receptors play an important role in memory formation to aversive conditioning, spatial and nonspatial memory training, and nonaversive tasks (Lime et al.
The Halcyon Centre is a fantastic facility which offers older people and people with physical disabilities or dementia a range of activities such as cookery, gardening, music, memory training and much more.