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(mĭnĭn`jēz), three membranous layers of connective tissueconnective tissue,
supportive tissue widely distributed in the body, characterized by large amounts of intercellular substance and relatively few cells. The intercellular material, or matrix, is produced by the cells and gives the tissue its particular character.
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 that envelop the brain and spinal cord (see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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). The outermost layer, or dura mater, is extremely tough and is fused with the membranous lining of the skull. In the brain it forms a vertical sheet that separates the cerebral hemispheres and a horizontal sheet that lies between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The thin arachnoid membrane lies below and in close contact with the dura mater. The innermost layer, or pia mater, is in direct contact with the brain and spinal cord and contains the blood vessels that supply them. The pia mater and arachnoid membrane are separated by the subarachnoid space containing the cerebrospinal fluid, which carries nutrients, absorbs the impact of shocks, and acts as a barrier to disease organisms. Thus, the meninges provide a fluid-filled jacket for the protection of neural tissues and allow for the flexing and twisting of the vertebral column about the spinal cord.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the connective-tissue membranes enveloping the brain and spinal cord in vertebrates and man.

A primitive meninx develops in the embryo and differentiates into dura mater (adjoining the periosteum) and primary pia mater (adjoining the brain and forming the folds of the brain’s vascular plexuses). Three meninges are distinguished in adult mammals and man. In the brain region, dura mater, the outer membrane, forms the periosteum of the inner surface of the skull and passes longitudinal and transverse processes into the cranial cavity. The principal processes are the falciform, wedged between the two cerebral hemispheres (a rudiment is found in birds), and the tentorium cerebelli, which separates the cerebellum from the lower surface of the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. Sinuses form, when the dura mater splits, in certain places in the cranium; venous blood flows into them from the brain. In the spinal cord region, the dura mater consists of two layers, outer (periosteum) and inner. These are divided by the epidural space, which is filled with adipose tissue and venous plexuses.

The primitive pia mater in mammals splits into arachnoid and vascular or secondary, meninges. The arachnoid is internal to the dura mater. In the cranial cavity, it adjoins the surface of the gyri of the cerebral cortex, without entering the sulci or other depressions (thereby forming cisternae). In the spinal cord region, the arachnoid adheres firmly to the inner layer of the dura mater.

The innermost of the membranes is the meninx vasculosa, which adheres to the surface of the spinal cord and brain and extends into the brain’s sulci and depressions, containing the blood vessels that feed the brain. The subarachnoid space, between the arachnoid and the meninx vasculosa, is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The arachnoid and the meninx vasculosa, which join near the cerebral cortex, are given the common name of “pia mater.”

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord; there are three in mammals and one or two in submammalian forms
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Interestingly, IRIS not only led to paradoxical worsening in our patient, but also unmasked an occult opportunistic infection such as meningeal tuberculosis.
Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the ODD and both the penicillin MIC, using CLSI meningeal breakpoints, and the ceftriaxone MIC, using CLSI meningeal and non-meningeal breakpoints.
Because no method has been found to definitively diagnose meningeal deer worm infection in a living goat, and no controlled studies have been done to determine the best treatment for infected goats.
In this study, it was determined that other vessels which were contributed to ganglion supplying except main vessels (the occipital and ascending palatine arteries) were the ascending pharyngeal and medial meningeal arteries and muscular branch which ramified from the common carotid artery and extended to the muscles of the cervical region.
Meningiomas can cause a similar high density peripheral lesion with homogeneous enhancement, and they exhibit adjacent dural reaction, so-called "dural tail." A rare form of intraosseous meningioma can cause lytic bony changes with their blood supply, usually from the middle meningeal artery, while the blood supply of a plasmacytoma could be from the external carotid artery, mainly from superficial temporal branch and muscular branches of the vertebral artery.
Animal model of meningeal nociception: Glyceryl trinitrate (GNT) (10 mg/kg, Bioindustria L.I.M., Italy), dissolved in 10% ethylene glycol in saline (0.9% NaCl), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (1 mg/kg, Sigma, Italy), dissolved in saline, were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) and pain threshold detected after 1, 2, 4 and 6 h.
Przepiorka, "Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine for prevention of meningeal disease in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia and high-grade lymphoma," Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol.
Extradural Meningeal Cysts (EMCs) are rare lesions and are uncommon causes of spinal cord or nerve compression (1-3).
Herein we present a patient with the unusual presentation of cerebellar parenchymal GS invasion without skull, meningeal, or bone marrow invasion after completing treatment for AML.
Cytologically proven meningeal carcinomatosis in patients with lung cancer: Clinical observation of 34 cases.
Brain MRI T1 weighted images with Gadolinium injection revealed basal meningeal enhancement with multiple tiny cerebral granulomas.FLAIR-weighted images revealed multiple small high signal intensity foci in bilateral temporal lobes and the basal ganglia strongly suggesting vasculitis and ischemic lesions.
Neurological examination revealed a sign of meningeal irritation and otherwise unremarkable.