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(mĭnĭn`jēz), three membranous layers of connective tissueconnective tissue,
supportive tissue widely distributed in the body, characterized by large amounts of intercellular substance and relatively few cells. The intercellular material, or matrix, is produced by the cells and gives the tissue its particular character.
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 that envelop the brain and spinal cord (see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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). The outermost layer, or dura mater, is extremely tough and is fused with the membranous lining of the skull. In the brain it forms a vertical sheet that separates the cerebral hemispheres and a horizontal sheet that lies between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The thin arachnoid membrane lies below and in close contact with the dura mater. The innermost layer, or pia mater, is in direct contact with the brain and spinal cord and contains the blood vessels that supply them. The pia mater and arachnoid membrane are separated by the subarachnoid space containing the cerebrospinal fluid, which carries nutrients, absorbs the impact of shocks, and acts as a barrier to disease organisms. Thus, the meninges provide a fluid-filled jacket for the protection of neural tissues and allow for the flexing and twisting of the vertebral column about the spinal cord.



the connective-tissue membranes enveloping the brain and spinal cord in vertebrates and man.

A primitive meninx develops in the embryo and differentiates into dura mater (adjoining the periosteum) and primary pia mater (adjoining the brain and forming the folds of the brain’s vascular plexuses). Three meninges are distinguished in adult mammals and man. In the brain region, dura mater, the outer membrane, forms the periosteum of the inner surface of the skull and passes longitudinal and transverse processes into the cranial cavity. The principal processes are the falciform, wedged between the two cerebral hemispheres (a rudiment is found in birds), and the tentorium cerebelli, which separates the cerebellum from the lower surface of the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. Sinuses form, when the dura mater splits, in certain places in the cranium; venous blood flows into them from the brain. In the spinal cord region, the dura mater consists of two layers, outer (periosteum) and inner. These are divided by the epidural space, which is filled with adipose tissue and venous plexuses.

The primitive pia mater in mammals splits into arachnoid and vascular or secondary, meninges. The arachnoid is internal to the dura mater. In the cranial cavity, it adjoins the surface of the gyri of the cerebral cortex, without entering the sulci or other depressions (thereby forming cisternae). In the spinal cord region, the arachnoid adheres firmly to the inner layer of the dura mater.

The innermost of the membranes is the meninx vasculosa, which adheres to the surface of the spinal cord and brain and extends into the brain’s sulci and depressions, containing the blood vessels that feed the brain. The subarachnoid space, between the arachnoid and the meninx vasculosa, is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The arachnoid and the meninx vasculosa, which join near the cerebral cortex, are given the common name of “pia mater.”


The membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord; there are three in mammals and one or two in submammalian forms
References in periodicals archive ?
One possibility that kept coming up was a hair-like nematode known as meningeal deer worm, although I was repeatedly assured this parasite rarely affects goats.
Based on this evidence and on data implicating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic bioactivities of SJW, we investigated the efficacy of a dried extract of this herbal drug in an animal model of meningeal nociception induced by administration of nitric oxide (NO) donors in order to find an effective and tolerable therapeutic perspective for migraine pain.
Norobruselloz tanisi ise etkenin BOS kulturunde uretilmesi, BOS'da Brusella'ya karsi olusmus antikorlarin gosterilmesi ve meningeal tutulumu gosteren bulgularin varligi ile konulmaktadir (8, 9).
2]O) noted at lumbar puncture, the presence of spinal meningeal diverticula on MRI of the spine or resolution of symptoms within 72 hours of an EBR Postural headache has been reported by more than 30% of patients after lumbar puncturexz and is likely sustained by similar mechanisms to those of SIH such that brain MRI findings overlap.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed 2 areas consistent with cavernous malformations but no abnormal meningeal enhancement.
Once this central generator is activated, it initiates two peripheral pain mechanisms in the meninges: vasodilation of meningeal blood vessels and neurogenic inflammation.
Rhabdomyosarcoma frequently looks like a polypoid mass on examination, so easily misdiagnosed as aural polyp and therefore, advanced disease with meningeal involvement is common at the time of diagnosis (1).
A contrasted CT scan or an MRI will show characteristic meningeal enhancement and rule out additional intracranial complications known to occur in up to 50% of these cases.
Seemingly innocuous foci of signal abnormality, meningeal pathology and multicentric lesions may represent or progress to GBM.
Although neurological involvement in HL manifests as spinal cord lesions rather than intracranial lesions, intracranial involvement usually appears via tumoral invasion via cranial and meningeal involvement (6-8), or via the hematogenous route (9-11).
Extradural Meningeal Cysts (EMCs) are rare lesions and are uncommon causes of spinal cord or nerve compression (1-3).