Meniscus


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Related to Meniscus: meniscus tear

meniscus

1. the curved upper surface of a liquid standing in a tube, produced by the surface tension
2. a crescent-shaped fibrous cartilage between the bones at certain joints, esp at the knee
3. a crescent-shaped lens; a concavo-convex or convexo-concave lens

Meniscus

 

the crescent-shaped inner and outer intraarticular cartilages in the knee joint.

The menisci increase the congruence of the joint surfaces, making diversity of movement possible and softening the effect of impact. The menisci may be injured by forced movement connected with overextension of the joint (most often in athletes). When the menisci are detached, there is a sudden block of the joint; sharp pains result from strangulation of the detached parts and the impossibility of movement in the joint. Proper treatment (conservative or, when this proves unsuccessful, surgical) completely restores joint function. In other joints (for example, mandibular and radiocarpal) intraarticular cartilages with analagous functions are called disks.


Meniscus

 

in optics, a concavo-convex or convexo-concave lens bounded by two spherical surfaces; such a lens is one of the most widely used types of lenses. A meniscus whose thickness is greater at the center than at the edges (positive meniscus) is a converging lens, and a meniscus whose thickness is greater at the edges than at the center (negative meniscus) is a diverging lens. Menisci are used in various optical systems, for example, in eyeglasses, in the objectives of motion-picture cameras and still cameras, and as attachment lenses that change the focal lengths of objectives.

Meniscus systems have gained widespread use in applications that require a higher degree of correspondence between the optical image and the object, for example, in astronomy. In these systems, small distortions of the image introduced by the meniscus (aberrations) are compensated by aberrations introduced by other elements of the system. The result is that it is possible to obtain practically undistorted images. The inherent aberrations of the individual menisci may be reduced by the use of diaphragms (for example, in camera objectives, up to a relative aperture of 1:11).


Meniscus

 

the curved free surface of a liquid near the contact between the liquid and the surface of a solid. For example, a meniscus is formed at the walls of vessels and in the channels and pores of spongy materials impregnated with liquids. A meniscus has a spherical shape in thin (capillary) tubes and a cylindrical shape in a sufficiently narrow gap between flat plates. The curvature of the meniscus is determined by the relationship between the forces of molecular interaction at the triple point of the three phases—solid, liquid, and gas (or vapor). A liquid that wets a given surface forms a concave meniscus, whereas a liquid that does not wet the surface forms a convex meniscus. In the first case, the mutual attraction between the molecules of the liquid (cohesion) is weaker than the attraction of the molecules of the liquid by the molecules of the surface of the solid (adhesion). Conversely, in the second case, the forces of cohesion exceed the forces of adhesion. The vapor pressure over a concave meniscus is less than, and that over a convex meniscus is more than, the vapor pressure over a plane liquid surface. This explains such phenomena as capillary condensation, capillary absorption of a liquid in porous and fibrous materials, and the rising and falling of liquids in thin pipes.

meniscus

[mə′nis·kəs]
(anatomy)
A crescent-shaped body, especially an interarticular cartilage.
(fluid mechanics)
The free surface of a liquid which is near the walls of a vessel and which is curved because of surface tension.
(metallurgy)
In reference to a solder joint, the minimum angle at which the solder tapers from the joint to the flat area.
References in periodicals archive ?
The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that between your femur (thigh bone) and there are two menisci on the inside and joint and they help to distribute the weight Birmingham consultant knee surgeon Jamie can injure the menisci by bending and of a damaged meniscus include pain, inability to straighten the knee.
Nader Darwich, Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon specialised in knee and sports at Burjeel Hospital for Advanced Surgery, Dubai, says: "It is crucial to save an important component such as the meniscus in an injured knee instead of just removing it as repairing it can give more life to the knee.
However there were no statistically significant differences between the increases in the BC volume and the degrees of medial and lateral meniscus damage.
On the other hand, lateral meniscus tears are more frequent than medial meniscal tears in younger patients and are likely to be associated with trauma (14).
In conjunction with the US FDA approval, the company has developed an all-suture meniscus repair system that preserves knee functionality and is secure, reliable and effective.
The meniscus' cellular matrix is replete with proteins and sugars filling the spaces between cells, binding tissues together.
To preserve long-term function and prevent arthrosis, the integrity of the meniscus is crucial.
Therefore, successful cell-free strategies for meniscus repair and regeneration require application of the appropriate stimulation and recruitment factors [17, 18].
This paper therefore examines experimental measurements of vaporization of alkali metal salts into an atmospheric gas in an attempt to quantify the effect of a meniscus on determining the evaporation flux and the condensation coefficient.
Meniscus injuries and meniscal tears are more prevalent among active children who participate in sports, and their frequency increases during adolescence (3,6).
Lack of an intrameniscal high signal and normal morphology was considered as a normal meniscus. Presence of intrameniscal high signal reaching upto the articular surface was considered as tear, whereas those signal intensities not reaching articular surface were not labelled as tears.
Adult, admitted patients with medial meniscus injury in whom conservative treatment failed to produce relief were included in the study.