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Related to mental nerve: lingual nerve, mental foramen


see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Ignorance of its existence may result in unforeseen damage to the neurovascular bundles or unsuccessful mental nerve block.
-3, minor complication or no complication; loss of mental nerve sensory for less than a month or a complete recovery at the end of 1 month.
Caption: Figure 1: Anatomy of the supraorbital notch, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen with corresponding neurovascular structures and the course of the auriculotemporal nerve: (a) 1 = supraorbital notch containing the supraorbital nerve and vessels; 2 = infraorbital foramen containing the infraorbital nerve and vessels; 3 = mental foramen containing the mental nerve and vessels; 4 = corrugator supercilii muscle, which is superficial to the supraorbital notch; 5 = levator labii superioris muscle, which is superficial to the infraorbital foramen; 6 = depressor labii inferioris muscle, which is superficial to the mental foramen, and (b) 7 = auriculotemporal nerve; 8 = temporalis muscle; P = parotid gland.
Neurological deficit of all the 20 patients was assessed pre and postoperatively, out of 20 cases paresthesia was seen in six patients pre operatively who was diagnosed with Parasymphysis fractures, paresthesia continued postoperatively in four patients which did not subside by end of 1 month, in all these six cases intraoperatively it was found that the mental nerve was intact in four cases and the nerve was entrapped in two cases in all these cases careful dissection carried out, mental nerve was isolated and preserved, plate fixation was done.
Ngeow, "Is there a "safety zone" in the mandibular premolar region where damage to the mental nerve can be avoided if periapecal extrusion occurs?" Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, vol.
Profound anaesthesia of the mental nerve is imperative for endodontic treatment and thus the credibility of this study lies in the fact that the accurate knowledge of the various morphologic and morphometric parameters of the MF can be of immense help in proper localization of the important maxilla-facial neurological structures in and around the MF.
Good knowledge of mental nerve anatomy and branches is very important for conducting surgical procedures, nerve block and local anesthesia, (1) implant insertion (14) and periapical surgery, and for better understanding endodontic-related pain and paresthesia.
Jaques B et al10 1.45% sensory disturbances in mental nerve while Cabrini Gabrielli MA et al27 reported 0.89% paraesthesia in I.D.
Researchers wishing to know where it was first described should take note of this reference: "Konotey-Ahulu F I D, Mental nerve neuropathy: a complication of sickle cell crisis.
The MF permits the passage of the neurovascular bundles containing the mental nerve, artery and vein to the external surface of the mandible (Aminoshariae et al., 2014).
Sensory nerve injury particularly of the inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve is a common complication associated with mandibular fractures.