meristem

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meristem

(mĕr`istĕm'), a specialized section of plant tissue characterized by cell division and growth. Much of the mature plant's growth is provided by meristems. Apical meristems found at the tips of stems and roots increase the length of these sections. Stems and roots may also grow in thickness or in diameter through cell divisions in lateral, or secondary, meristems, found just under the surface along the length of the stem or root. Tissues derived from differentiated lateral meristem are known as secondary tissues. In one type of lateral meristem, called cambium, or vascular cambium, the cells divide and differentiate to form the conducting tissues of the plant, i.e., the woodwood,
botanically, the xylem tissue that forms the bulk of the stem of a woody plant. Xylem conducts sap upward from the roots to the leaves, stores food in the form of complex carbohydrates, and provides support; it is made up of various types of cells specialized for each of
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, or xylem, and the phloem (see barkbark,
outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast).
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; stemstem,
supporting structure of a plant, serving also to conduct and to store food materials. The stems of herbaceous and of woody plants differ: those of herbaceous plants are usually green and pliant and are covered by a thin epidermis instead of by the bark of woody plants.
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). The growth in diameter of tree trunks is wholly dependent on the division of cambium cells. Other meristematic tissues include corkcork,
protective, waterproof outer covering of the stems and roots of woody plants. Cork is a specialized secondary tissue produced by the cork cambium of the plant (see meristem, bark).
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 cambium, which divides to produce waterproofing and protective cork tissue at the surface of the stem and root; and intercalary meristems, modified apical meristems found in different positions than either apical or lateral meristems, e.g., in the stem nodes of grasses. See also differentiationdifferentiation,
in biology, series of changes that occur in cells and tissues during development, resulting in their specialization. This, in turn, permits a greater variety of organisms.
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, in biology.

Meristem

 

formative tissue, a plant tissue characterized by prolonged cell-division activity. Some cells of the meristem—the initiating cells—remain in the embryonic phase of development and, by dividing, provide uninterrupted growth of the plant body. Other cells of the meristem gradually become differentiated, forming various derivative tissues (integumentary, conducting, mechanical, basal).

Meristems originate from the protomeristem of the embryo, which develops into the apical and lateral meristems. The apical meristems—the growing points of shoots and roots—are formed very early in the embryo. The formation of the cotyledons and later of the leaf rudiments on the growing point of the shoot results in differentiation of the lateral meristems into the procambium and cambium. Meristematic tissue is partially preserved in some parts of the plant body during plant growth, for example, in the roots (Pericycle—rhizogenic meristem), the nodes of the shoot, and the medullary rays of the stem. Intercalary meristem is temporarily preserved in the buds, the inter-nodes of the shoot (Gramineae), and the bases of the petioles.

Because almost all living, mature tissues (except the sieve tubes) possess the capacity to divide, new, or secondary, meristems, such as Phellogen (forming cork tissue) and callus, may arise in the plant. Meristem cells differ from the cells of permanent tissues in that they are smaller, densely arranged, and almost cubical in shape (only cells of the procambium and cambium are elongated). They usually have a thin primary membrane and a dense protoplast, in which the nucleus and nucleolus occupy a central position. The endoplasmic network is poorly developed; there are many ribosomes. The mitochondria and dictyosomes are only slightly differentiated. The vacuoles are very small, and the plastids are in the form of protoplastids. Meristem cells are characterized by high metabolic activity.

REFERENCES

Esau, K. Anatomiia rastenii. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.) Lehrbuch der Botanik fur Hochschulen, 30th ed. Jena, 1971.
I. S. MIKHAILOVSKAIA

meristem

[′mer·ə‚stem]
(botany)
Formative plant tissue composed of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and giving rise to other meristematic cells as well as to specialized cell types; found in growth areas.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the apical meristem, ablation of the selected cells can increase the persistence of meri-clone regeneration, which results in the production of virus-free plantlets at high propotion (Nascimento et al., 2003; Wasswa et al., 2010; Wang and Valkonen, 2008).
All palms have meristems that produce inflorescences.
(7) This molecular-oriented strategy led to the identification of three peptide hormones, namely, C-terminally encoded peptide (CEP), involved in long-distance nitrogen demand signaling, (8) root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulating root meristem development,9) and Casparian strip integrity factor (CIF) required for contiguous Casparian strip formation.10) These critical peptide hormones had long been overlooked, probably due to their gene redundancy.
The CRC genes are expressed abaxially in the carpel, placenta, and nectaries promoting the development of the gynoecium and abaxial part of the carpel wall, and terminating the floral meristem [33-38].
Among the preservatives stand out potassium benzoate, sodium benzoate, potassium nitrate, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects to normal cells of human peripheral blood (Mpountoukas et al., 2010, Zequin, Yuzbagioglu, Unal, Yilmaz, & Aksoy, 2011), boric acid, citric acid, potassium citrate and sodium citrate, cytotoxic and genotoxic to root meristem cells of A.
The high percentage of monomorphism (77.7% and 98.2%) in regenerated plantlets confirmed the effectiveness of shoot tip meristems as ideal sources of explants for guaranteeing true to type plantlets.
In order to evaluate the efficiency of continuous and temporary immersion bioreactor systems, 21 explants with 1 cm length and two buds, excised from multiplied meristems, were placed in glass bottles contained 300 mL of liquid MS culture medium supplemented with 30 g [L.sup.-1] sucrose and autoclaved for 20 minutes at 121[degrees]C and [approximately equal to] 1 kgf cm- 2.
Culture conditions: After the meristems had been cultured onto the respective media treatments, the meristem cultures were moved to the growth room where temperature was kept at 25[+ or -]3oC and a 16 hour light:8 hour dark photoperiod was maintained.
(2011) reported that the droplet vitrification method was more efficient for cryopreservation of Liliun apical meristems compared with the vitrification method.
The crop plants escape harm because they are taller than the weeds, and their apical meristems (growing points) are protected beneath the soil or by thick plant parts.
Several sections for each generative meristems and anther developmental stages were investigated with a Zeiss Axiostar plus light microscope.