For example, a reduced body size of recently metamorphosed juveniles (i.e., first crab stage) was evidenced in the ornamental red-ridged clinging crab, Mithraculus forceps, when megalopae experienced a starvation regime during the final phase of their meroplanktonic
development (see Figueiredo et al., 2008).
larvae dominated the community structure, representing > 39% of the total abundance.
forms are of interest, because they could contribute to the benthic diversity, connectivity and dispersal of coral reef organisms (Heidelberg, Sebens, & Purcell, 2004).
For example, assessing the impact of natural or anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., chemical pollutants, thermal discharges, oil spills, dredge spoil dumping, ocean acidification, discharges of ships' ballast water containing entrained meroplanktonic
organisms) on marine ecosystems; predicting recruitment for fisheries management; optimizing the timing of substrate placement for aquaculture; assessing the impact of fluctuations in climatic conditions; and conducting basic environmental surveys all depend on identifying the temporal and spatial abundance of meroplanktonic
and/or early post-larval stages of various species.
Copepoda, cladocera and other holoplanktonic and meroplanktonic
organisms were encountered in all seasons and mostly in all stations (Table I).
Population dynamics of spatially distributed, meroplanktonic
, exploited marine invertebrates.
forms were represented by gastropod and bivalve veligers, crustacean larvae (nauplii, zoea and megalopa), and Polychaeta trocophores.
calcified organisms such as juvenile gastropods and foraminifera are adversely affected as C[O.sub.2] levels increase (Cigliano et al., 2010), but carbon dioxide seeps have not so far been used for the study of ocean acidification on holoplankton.
The most abundant meroplanktonic
morphotypes were Gastropoda (maximum of 1,630 ind.m-3), Pelecypoda (4,630 ind.[m.sup.-3]) and Polychaete larvae (4,22 ind.[m.sup.-3]).
The influence of spatially and temporally varying oceanographic conditions on meroplanktonic
In planktonic larvae of meroplanktonic
organisms, this behavioral trait maximizes dispersion/retention of individuals into favorable areas/layers to enhance recruitment.
Because net estuarine flow is seaward, estuarine species with meroplanktonic
larvae have developed behavioral mechanisms that enhance retention and/or immigration and subsequent settlement to adult habitats (Olmi 1995).