Development of the mesendoderm
in the dendrobranchiate shrimp Sicyonia ingentis.
PGC specification in humans occurs at ~2 weeks after fertilization when BMP signals target to the mesendoderm of the preprimitive streak embryo, which leads to the induction of SOX17 which, with BLIMP1, suppresses endodermal differentiation and activates PGC differentiation .
recently showed in porcine, monkey, and human systems that even after PGC priming of mesendoderm cells, overexpression of SOX17 or loss of BLIMP1 resulted in differentiation to definitive endoderm .
Recently published reports have shown that BMP4 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) signaling modulated ActA-induced mesendoderm differentiation in mouse [17-19] and human ESC cultures .
The expression of the mesoderm marker BRACH and the endoderm-associated markers SOX17 and HNF4[alpha] confirmed ActA addition as a robust inducer of mesendoderm formation.
For example, rs16999714 is located upstream of the DNMT1 transcription start site in a putative enhancer that appears active in H1 BMP4-derived trophoblast cells, adjacent to a poised enhancer in H1-derived mesenchymal stem cells but not in derived mesendoderm
cells (see Figure S3) as well as other fetal tissues or cell lines (Ward and Kellis 2012; Zhou et al.
Histone deacetylation promotes mouse neural induction by restricting Nodal-dependent mesendoderm
Nanni et al., "Smad-interacting protein-1 and microRNA 200 family define a nitric oxide-dependent molecular circuitry involved in embryonic stem cell mesendoderm
differentiation," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.
and foreign patents and applications directed to culture, expansion and scale-up of pluripotent stem cells and cell types derived therefrom, various differentiation processes for production of mesendoderm
, definitive endoderm, PEC-01, and endocrine precursors, as well as claims directed to the company's Encaptra macro-encapsulation device platform.
In order to study the role of Nanog in differentiating cells, we analyzed the expression of Brachyury, a reputable mesendoderm
marker under the control of Nanog.
The AHR is expressed in mesendoderm
of early embryos and ES cell EBs.
Notably, two distinct sets of endoderm can be distinguished in the developing embryo: visceral endoderm arising directly from the inner cell mass and definitive endoderm (DE) derived from mesendoderm
within the anterior primitive streak in close proximity to the cardiovascular progenitors [1,14-16].