cephalic index

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index, cephalic:

see cephalic indexcephalic index
[Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions.
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.

cephalic index

(səfăl`ĭk) [Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions. The index is obtained by dividing the maximum width of the cranium by its maximum length and multiplying by 100. In anthropometryanthropometry
, technique of measuring the human body in terms of dimensions, proportions, and ratios such as those provided by the cephalic index. Once the standard approach to racial classification and comparing humans to other primates, the technique is now used for deciding
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, the cephalic index has been the favored measurement. A cephalic index of 80 or more is called brachycephalic or broad; a measurement between 75 and 80 is mesaticephalic; below 75 is considered dolicocephalic or long. The cranial index is the same ratio taken on a skull.

Cephalic Index

 

the ratio of the head’s greatest breadth (transverse diameter) to its greatest length (longitudinal diameter), expressed in percent.

The cephalic index is used in anthropology for determining the head contour in the horizontal plane. When the index is under 74.9 it is called dolichocephalic; between 75.0 and 79.9, mesaticephalic; and above 80.0, brachycephalic. With the aid of the cephalic index, local anthropological types can be isolated within the major races of man. Group variations in cephalic index are already reflected in early childhood. In comparison with earlier times, there has been an increase since the Middle Ages in the cephalic index (brachycephali-zation), although a decrease in the index (debrachycephaliza-tion) was recorded at a number of locations between 1950 and 1970. The cephalic index is not related to intellect.

V. P. CHTETSOV


Cephalic Index

 

in anthropology, the degree of protuberance of the face and the parts of the face in a vertical or horizontal plane. A vertical cephalic index is characterized by the facial angle, by the angle of the nasal portion of the face, or by the angle of the alveolar portion of the face.

A face is classified according to its facial angle. Thus, a prognathous face has an angle up to 79.9°, a mesognathous face has an angle of 80.0° to 84.9°, and an orthognathous face has an angle of 85° or more. A horizontal cephalic index determines facial flatness at the level of the root of nose; it also determines the degree of protuberance of the cheekbones. Cephalic indexes are good racial indicators.

cephalic index

[sə′fal·ik ′in‚deks]
(anthropology)
The ratio of maximum breadth to maximum length of the head multiplied by 100.
References in periodicals archive ?
Female mesocephalic skulls: MT= 7.12 mm in superior middle cell; MT= 6.54 mm in middle middle cell; and MT= 5.34 mm in inferior posterior cell (Table II).
Patients evaluating Cormack-Lehane had a class IV for brachycephalic, indicative of difficult intubation, dolichocephalic and mesocephalic class II, mild difficulty of intubation (Table 3); significant statistical difference when comparing, brachycephalic and each group was found (p=0.00), but no difference was found dolichocephalic and mesocephalic.
Significant differences between mesocephalic and brachycephalic patients were observed measuring the angle between the Frankfurt plane and the mandibular plane (P<0.001) but no other significant measurements differences were identified.
Sr Head shape Cephalic Range 1 Dolicocephalic -- <74.9 2 Mesocephalic 75< CI <79.9 3 Brachycephalic 80< CI <84.9 4 Hperbrachycephalic 85< CI <89.9 CI <89.9 Table II.
In males, 31.41% were dolichocephalic, 45.06% were mesocephalic, 18.86% were brachycephalic, 2.09% were hyperbrachycephalic, and 1.57% were ultrabrachycephalic.
Table 1 Head Shape Range of Cephalic Index (%) Dolichocephalic Up to 74.9 Mesocephalic 75.0-79.9 Brachycephalic 80.0-84.9 Hyperbrachycephalic 85.0-89.9 Table 2: Cephalic Index in Different Endogamous Groups (Jat Sikhs, Banias, Majhbi Sikhs) n Mean Range Min Max S.D.
The statistical analysis of our findings, however, evidenced that the ramus of brachicephalic hemi-mandibles were significantly less wide those of dolicho- and mesocephalic ones (Table I).
Male Dolichocephalic 71.0-75.9 13 2.3% Mesocephalic 76.0-80.9 110 19.6% Brachycephalic 81.0-85.9 291 51.9% Hyperbrachycephalic 86.0-90.9 140 25.0% Ultrabrachycephallic 91.0-x 7 1.2% Female Dolichocephalic 72.0-76.9 1 0.5% Mesocephalic 77.0-81.9 38 19.7% Brachycephalic 82.0-86.4 89 46.1% Hyperbrachycephalic 86.5-91.9 60 31.1% Ultrabrachycephallic 92.0-x 5 2.6% Table III.
Of the skull samples analyzed, the most frequent type found was mesocephalic (N = 25), followed by dolichocephalic (N = 21), then by brachycephalic (N = 18), hyperbrachycephalic (N = 5), and hyperdolichocephalic (N = 2).
(1989) the dolicocephalic head shape was dominant in the Kanuri newborns, while the mesocephalic type was dominant in the Babur/Bura newborns.
Based on the cephalic index, the head shape of 42.4% of individuals were brachycephalic, 7.6% hyperbrachycephalic, 40.9% mesocephalic and 8.1% dolicocephalic.
In other study was done on 759 adult female (22-24 years old) in Tehran- Iran in 2003, reported that 42.7 % of the individuals were brachycephalic, 22.9 % hyperbrachycephalic, 24.5 % mesocephalic and 9.9% dolichocephalic.