Crum SM Shiflett SA Jenerette GD The influence of vegetation, mesoclimate
and meteorology on urban atmospheric microclimates across a coastal to desert climate gradient J Environ Manage 2017 200295303 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.077.o10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.07728586733
In the humid piedmont, the mesoclimate
is wet and warm, with annual rainfall >1,000 mm (concentrated in the summer) and potential evapotranspiration about 900 mm.
Vegetation mainly influences the micro- and mesoclimate
through shading and evapotranspiration (Andrade and Vieira 2007; Bernatzky 1982; Endlicher 2012; Georgi and Dimitriou 2010; Huang et al.
of the campos de altitude and affinities with high mountain climates of the tropical Andes and Costa Rica.
Local conditions that influence the weather in a particular vineyard or portion of a vineyard are referred to as the mesoclimate
, and the climatic conditions around a particular vine are the microclimate.
Vineyard altitude and mesoclimate
influences on the phenology and maturation of Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes from Santa Catarina State.
Numerical results are presented for six locations in Venezuela representing different mesoclimate
types: La Mariposa (Miranda State); San Francisco de Macanao (Nueva Esparta State); Villa El Rosario (Zulia State); Machiques (Zulia State); Carora (Lara State); and San Carlos de Rio Negro (Amazonas State).
While the macroclimate will influence the wine, it is the mesoclimate
(the climate of a specific vineyard site) and the microclimate (the climate of the grape cluster) that give wine its distinctive personality.
The process involved overlaying data on macroclimate and mesoclimate
, such as frost dates, frequency of extreme low temperatures, degree days, aspect, slope, present land use, and soils.
The large range (about 280) in GDD among WSRP weather station sites as depicted in Table 2, as well as the successful commercial production of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, highlights the importance of the vineyard mesoclimate
. For example, a 140-day growing season with 1442 growing degree days is reported for the Idaho Parma Experimental weather station in Table 2 (Fig.
High air moisture coupled with thermophilic mesoclimate
enhance evapotranspiration, which probably reaches potential values (Carbiener, 1970).
Ideal sites or `resource patches' were chosen on the basis of combinations of mesoclimate
, access to wildlife, and local plant resources.