Although the mesocyclone
draws rain-cooled air into the updraft area of the storm, the pressure deficits help propagate the storm away from the cold air.
Based on early radar analyses and visual storm observations, Lemon and Doswell III  identified key stormscale structures in tornadic supercell storms: a mesocyclone
embedded in both a deep updraft and a rear-flank downdraft (RFD), and an additional persistent downdraft in the forward flank region (FFD).
FUNNEL CLOUD: When the mesocyclone
strengthens, a rotating cloud in the shape of a cone forms near the bottom of the thunderstorm.
4 TOUCHDOWN: Scientists believe downdrafts of cool air pull the mesocyclone
toward the ground.
The same process that creates a mesocyclone
in a tornadic thunderstorm also creates a volcanic mesocyclone
in a strong volcanic plume, according to Chakraborty.
The source of most strong tornadoes is the energy of a major weather system concentrated by a supercell thunderstorm and a special rotating region of these storms called a mesocyclone
. The mesocyclone
might be typically five miles in diameter and produce a tornado up to a mile wide.
is a three dimensional region in a storm that rotates.
Rather than selecting the correct answer (i.e., mesocyclone
), students tended to respond with "funnel cloud" or "tornado." The students also frequently missed a question from the second MoD tornado lesson that involved the sources of moisture that can contribute to favorable conditions for tornadoes (17% correct).
A supercell is a thunderstorm characterised by the presence of a mesocyclone
, according to wikipedia: i.e.
To produce a classic tornado, we need a mesocyclone
, a deep and consistent rotating cyclone embedded within the storm, from which a tornado might spawn.
Throughout the severe weather events, the US emergency managers (EMs) use a variety of information sources, particularly radar products [2, 3], and the radar algorithms, attempting to detect, classify, and track the presence of severe thunderstorm cells, mesocyclone
circulations, tornadic vortex signatures, downbursts/microbursts, and hail, among others.
'But we have shown that these models are missing a subtle but crucial feature: a "volcanic mesocyclone
" that sets both column and umbrella spinning about their vertical axis.'