Above the mesopause
, in the thermosphere, the (kinetic) temperature increases and can rise to 1000[degrees]C (depending on solar activity) at altitudes of 250 km remaining quasi stable with increasing height.
The increasing release of methane into the atmosphere from sources such as rice paddies, land-fills and cattle, increases the amount of water in the dry mesopause region.
`So the combination of decreasing temperatures and increasing water vapour in the mesopause region, increases the likelihood of cloud formation,' Burns says.
Burns notes that any advantage in looking for climate change in the mesopause is still a matter of scientific debate.
The cosmoid idea may also explain why the polar mesopause
gets so cold.
It is thought that increased solar activity may cause the temperature at the mesopause
to rise because of stronger ultraviolet radiation.
von Zahn, 1991: Thermal structure of the mesopause
region at polar latitudes.
These waves take over an hour to reach the mesopause emission level and must traverse the stratosphere and mesosphere, which process the wave energy (absorption, breaking, and other effects) via wind shear and critical layers (e.g., Alexander et al.
On this night, close to the new moon, there is no moonlight illuminating the scene--clouds are detectable via reflection of downwelling hydroxyl nightglow emitting principally from a region near the mesopause.
Batista, 2011: Sodium lidar measurements of mesopause
region temperatures at 23[degrees]S.