Other important hydrological characteristics include mesoscale eddies
, which are usually present year-round with seasonal variations (Kurczyn, Beier, Lavin, & Chaigneau, 2012), winter/spring coastal upwelling (Torres-Orozco, Trasvina, Muhlia-Melo, & Ortega-Garcia, 2005; Lopez-Sandoval, Lara-Lara, Lavin, Alvarez-Borrego, & Gaxiola-Castro, 2009) and an extremely shallow upper layer of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 9.0 [micro]mol L-1) which reaches depths of ~50 m along the coast (Zamudio, Hurlburt, Metzger, & Tilburg, 2007; Cepeda-Morales, Beier, Gaxiola-Castro, Lavin, & Godinez, 2009).
M., and Coauthors, 2015: Impacts on ocean heat from transient mesoscale eddies
in a hierarchy of climate models.
, as well as oceanic upwellings and fronts, are common in the CC (Loeb et al., 1983a, 1983b; Espinosa-Carreon et al., 2012).
Mauder, "Mesoscale eddies
affect near-surface turbulent exchange: Evidence from lidar and tower measurements," Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol.
Zarokanellos uses the gliders to study the mesoscale eddies
of the central Red Sea, focusing on the area of water between KAUST and the Saudi city of Yanbu.
Their topics include early life history, feeding ecology, the formation of a Pacific bluefin tuna fishing ground on their spawning grounds around Ryukyu Islands and implications of a relationship with mesoscale eddies
, otolithic geochemical analysis for stock discrimination and migratory ecology of tuna species, new insights into reproduction in wild and captive species, and a method for measuring the swimming behavior of Pacific bluefin tuna.
Global climate simulations are beginning to be able to resolve the largest eddies, called mesoscale eddies
, which are considered the "weather" of the ocean.
Since mesoscale eddies
markedly affect monthly variations in chlorophyll-a sea surface temperature, and the other characteristics of the upper layer (Piontkovski et al., 2012b), their energetic characteristics were calculated.
Ladd, "Influence of mesoscale eddies
on ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Alaska," Fisheries Oceanography, vol.
The observed trajectories reflect a variety of phenomena, characteristic to the current field of the Gulf of Finland (Figs 4, 5): the presence of relatively small mesoscale eddies
with a diameter of about 5 km to the north of Naissaar, inertial oscillations in the open part of the gulf to the north of Pakri Peninsula and further north of Naissaar, and relatively rapid almost straight alongshore drift apparently steered by topography.
The Northern Gulf of Mexico is frequently impacted by mesoscale eddies
. These features can alter nutrient supply to surface waters and thus affect phytoplankton biomass.
Such models, however, may overlook some of the dynamic features in the Gulf of Finland where resolving the dynamics of mesoscale eddies
(at least in terms of their statistics) requires the use of a horizontal resolution down to 1 NM or even less.