metal matrix composite
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metal matrix composite[¦med·əl ¦mā·triks kəm′päz·ət]
Metal matrix composite
A material in which a continuous metallic phase (the matrix) is combined with another phase (the reinforcement) that constitutes a few percent to around 50% of the material's total volume. In the strictest sense, metal matrix composite materials are not produced by conventional alloying. This feature differentiates most metal matrix composites from many other multiphase metallic materials, such as pearlitic steels or hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. See Alloy
The particular benefits exhibited by metal matrix composites, such as lower density, increased specific strength and stiffness, increased high-temperature performance limits, and improved wear-abrasion resistance, are dependent on the properties of the matrix alloy and of the reinforcing phase. The selection of the matrix is empirically based, using readily available alloys; and the major consideration is the nature of the reinforcing phase.
A large variety of metal matrix composite materials exist. The reinforcing phase can be fibrous, platelike, or equiaxed (having equal dimensions in all directions); and its size can also vary widely, from about 0.1 to more than 100 micrometers. Matrices based on most engineering metals have been explored, including aluminum, magnesium, zinc, copper, titanium, nickel, cobalt, iron, and various aluminides. This wide variety of systems has led to an equally wide spectrum of properties for these materials and of processing methods used for their fabrication. Reinforcements used in metal matrix composites fall in five categories: continuous fibers, short fibers, whiskers, equiaxed particles, and interconnected networks.
Composite properties depend first and foremost on the nature of the composite; however, certain detailed microstructural features of the composite can exert a significant influence on its behavior. Physical properties of the metal, which can be significantly altered by addition of a reinforcement, are chiefly dependent on the reinforcement distribution. A good example is aluminum-silicon carbide composites, for which the presence of the ceramic increases substantially the elastic modulus of the metal without greatly affecting its density. However, the level of improvement depends on the shape and alignment of the silicon carbide. Also, it depends on the processing of the reinforcement: for the same reinforcement shape (continuous fibers), microcrystalline polycarbosilane-derived silicon carbide fibers yield much lower improvements than do crystalline β-silicon carbide fibers. Other properties, such as the strength of metal matrix composites, depend in a much more complex manner on composite microstructure. The strength of a fiber-reinforced composite, for example, is determined by fracture processes, themselves governed by a combination of microstructural phenomena and features. These include plastic deformation of the matrix, the presence of brittle phases in the matrix, the strength of the interface, the distribution of flaws in the reinforcement, and the distribution of the reinforcement within the composite. Consequently, predicting the strength of the composite from that of its constituent phases is generally difficult. See Brittleness, Plastic deformation of metal
The combined attributes of metal matrix composites, together with the costs of fabrication, vary widely with the nature of the material, the processing methods, and the quality of the product. In engineering, the type of composite used and its application vary significantly, as do the attributes that drive the choice of metal matrix composites in design. For example, high specific modulus, low cost, and high weldability of extruded aluminum oxide particle-reinforced aluminum are the properties desirable for bicycle frames. High wear resistance, low weight, low cost, improved high-temperature properties, and the possibility for incorporation in a larger part of unreinforced aluminum are the considerations for design of diesel engine pistons. See Composite material, High-temperature materials