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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a branch of linguistics that studies the aggregate of the ethnic, social, historical, and geographic factors that are inseparably linked to the development of language.

The distinction between external and internal linguistics originated with the Swiss linguist F. de Saussure, one of the founders of structural linguistics. He recognized that the culture, history, and customs of a people, the relationships between language and the social institutions (school, church, and so on), the geographic distribution of languages, and linguistic contacts can influence the development of language; however, he considered all this alien to the “organism of language”—to its system. He introduced the contrast of language and speech and of synchrony and diachrony. Language is independent of speech; consequently, its system does not depend on extralinguistic factors. On the other hand, the origin of a particular linguistic element that can be associated with some external factor is not essential for the study of the contemporary state of a language or a synchronic analysis of its system; only the relationships obtaining between the elements in a system are important.

Modern Soviet linguistics does not deny the existence of external and internal aspects of language. The interaction of external and internal linguistic factors is particularly evident during periods of intensive linguistic contacts and in cases of bilingualism and multilingualism.


Saussure, F. de. Kurs obshchei lingvistiki. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933. (Translated from French.)
Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. “Nekotorye obshchie zamechaniia o iazykovedenii i iazyke.” Izbrannye trudy po obshchemu iazykoznaniiu, vol. 1. Moscow, 1963.
Budagov, R. A. Iz istorii iazykoznaniia (Sossiur i sossiureanstvo). Moscow, 1954.
Akhmanova, O. S., and V. Z. Panfilov. “Ekstralingyisticheskie i vnutrilingvisticheskie faktory v funktsionirovanii i razvitii iazyka.” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1963, no. 4.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Following their qualitative study of preservice bilingual teachers' understanding of teaching language through content, Rodriguez and Musanti (2014) concluded that bilingual teacher preparation needs, among other things, to develop teacher candidates' metalinguistic awareness and ability to move between the various language registers of the classroom.
A bilingual concordancer may help to improve students' EFL writing, but most students need to be trained to orchestrate their metalinguistic awareness when using the concordancer to get the maximum benefit.
Again this is strongly suggestive of a metalinguistic operation of the sort evident in CE1.
(5.) Horn (Natural History 363) states that the main function of metalinguistic negation is to object to a previous utterance on any grounds, including the conventional or conversational implicata it potentially induces, its morphology, its style or register, or its phonetic realization.
According to Lyster and Ranta [32], explicit correction and metalinguistic clues outperform the more implicit types like recast.
Finally, Edgar Schneider's "World Englishes and YouTube: Treasure Trove or Nightmare?" (253-281) produces a fully-fledged typology of YouTube videos-- according to whether they are "metalinguistic" or "natural" clips (262-275)--and neatly illustrates this with real-life material.
It is worth noting that Kripke also rejects a metalinguistic position when wondering about statements of existence.
The vale has been described as a form of farewell with its origins being traced to the Roman and Greek funerary inscriptions or epitaphs (Dickey & Chahoud, 2010) in which the farewell served as a pragmatic and metalinguistic function of marking the end whilst conveying insights into the life and work of the particular person.
metalinguistic feedback and repetition) have more advantages in that they help learners explore their own errors and propose their own solutions, which is more likely to facilitate learning.