The pH test shows that the FOG samples are very acidic; this can be due to the presence of large amount of free fatty acids(FFA) which usually forms by the hydrolysis and oxidation reactions of oils during deep frying of food [16,17].These FFAare chemically active and will favour the saponification reaction in the presence of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide which act as strong agents to form metallic soap [18,19].
hydrolyzed, in small parts to form metallic soap as well(Equation 6).
The presence of high amount of calcium and sodium indicates that the deposit is not only made of FOG but also metallic soaps that formed during the hydrolysis reaction (6).
 Miller, Jeffrey J., 2007, "Metallic soaps
of modified fatty acids and rosin acids and methods of making and using same," U.S.
The purpose of this present study is to evaluate some metallic soap from different metal salts to clarify concerns on the suitability of soaps used as an additive and kaolin as pigment for paper coating.
The reaction occurring between these processes are usually carried in an aqueous medium for alkaline and alkaline earth soaps or in an organic medium such as alcohol or benzene for metallic soaps (Eliot S.B 1946, Eliot S.B 1979).
Metallic soaps incorporated into a coating control the behavior of the color during its application or alter the properties of the finished product.
Alkaline and alkaline earth soaps as well as metallic soaps are employed in various fields (Poulenant et.al.
These serve to regulate water hardness, to prevent the formation of solid metallic soaps
and to assure corrosion protection for the parts to be cleaned and the cleaning system.
Dr Ken McDonald, senior counsellor to the European Association of Fatty Acid Producers (APAG) representing European producers of fatty acids, glycerine, alcohols, metallic soaps
and fatty nitriles and their derivatives, and fatty esters, said: "It's a relatively low hazard sector which is also data-rich and many products in the sector have applications in food and pharmaceuticals which are already well regulated in the EU."
(calcium behenate, calcium 12-hydroxy stearate) in powder and flake used as lubricants and costabilizers in rigid and semi-rigid PVC, and PVC copolymers and alloys.
Thus, dyeing-related non-level problems caused by the metallic soaps
are also eliminated.