metastasis

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metastasis

1. Pathol the spreading of a disease, esp cancer cells, from one part of the body to another
2. a rare word for metabolism

Metastasis

 

a secondary pathological focus arising from the transfer of a pathogenic principle (tumor cells, infectious agent) from the primary site of affection by the lymph or blood.

In the modern view, the term “metastasis” generally applies to the spread (dissemination) of malignant tumor cells; the spread of an infectious principle is usually described by the term “metastatic infectious focus.”

Benign tumors are also known to metastasize, and the capacity to do so is inherent in normal cells of various origin (in placental villi, adipose and hematopoietic bone-marrow cells). A distinctive feature of metastasizing tumor cells is the uncontrollable growth of the metastasis, relating it to primary foci of malignant growth. Metastatic tumor nodes retain other properties of primary tumors as well, such as microstructural features and the capacity to form the same products; however, metastatic nodes often have a more primitive structure and consist of functionally less mature cells than do the original tumors.

When tumor cells spread chiefly through the lymphatic vessels, metastases generally appear in the lymph nodes closest to the primary site. Although much research has been devoted to the routes and anatomical patterns of lymphogenous metastasis, the biological patterns of formation of lymphogenous metastases remain obscure. The mechanisms of hematogenous metastasis (to the lungs, liver, bones, and other viscera) are better understood. Four stages in the development of hematogenous metastasis are distinguished: (1) the detachment of cells from the primary tumor node and their penetration of the blood through the vascular wall; (2) the circulation of the tumor cells in the blood; (3) the attachment of the cells to the vascular wall and the start of intravascular growth; and (4) the rupture of the vascular wall by the tumorous masses and the subsequent growth of the metastasis into the tissue of the affected organ. The presence of metastasis indicates that a tumorous process has shifted from a local growth phase to a phase of generalization. A distinction is made between solitary metastasis, which generally can be removed surgically, and multiple metastases, which require combined treatment using radiation and chemotherapy.

N. S. KISELEVA

metastasis

[mə′tas·tə·səs]
(medicine)
Transfer of the causal agent (cell or microorganism) of a disease from a primary focus to a distant one through the blood or lymphatic vessels.
(physics)
A transition of an electron or nucleon from one bound state to another in an atom or molecule, or the capture of an electron by a nucleus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tumour depth, lymph node metastases, post-op serum CEA levels and complete tumour response on histopathology can affect the development of metachronous liver lesions in patients having umdergone curative surgical resection for rectal cancers.
"Patients living with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer who have visceral metastases often have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for treatment resistance and disease progression than those without," said Samit Hirawat, MD, Head, Novartis Oncology Global Drug Development.
Twelve cases (1 case associated with adrenal metastasis) were diagnosed with liver metastases (Figure 1) with or without extra-abdominal masses (lungs, bones, brain) and 7 cases with peritoneal carcinomatosis (Figures 2 and 3a) with or without ovarian secondary dissemination (Figure 3b), and 1 case of ovarian metastasis (without carcinomatosis).
Palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases: Update of an ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline.
To see whether driver gene mutations were the same across all metastases of a patient's cancer, Reiter and his colleagues analyzed DNA samples from 76 untreated metastases from a group of 20 patients with eight different cancer types, making sure at least two distinct metastases were sampled in each person.
Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases of rectal cancer.
After two years, six out of eight patients (75%) after adrenalectomy showed tumor recurrence at the following sites: intrahepatic recurrence (n=4), bone metastases (n=3), brain metastasis (n=1), adrenal metastasis on the contralateral side (n=2), and pulmonary recurrence (n=2) after 28 months (Table 1).
Here we report an extremely rare case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with sclerotic (osteoblastic) bone metastases.
reviewed 5170 patients with metastatic cancer, 61 of which were found to have skeletal muscle metastases. Of these, the iliopsoas muscle and paravertebral muscles were the most common sites of metastases at 27.5% and 25%, respectively.
Leclere et al., "Bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma," Endocrine Related Cancer, vol.
Early diagnosis of metastatic disease is crucial for staging and treatment planning with common sites of extrathoracic metastases including the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone via hematogenous dissemination [2].