meteorological satellite


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Related to meteorological satellite: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

meteorological satellite:

see satellite, artificialsatellite, artificial,
object constructed by humans and placed in orbit around the earth or other celestial body (see also space probe). The satellite is lifted from the earth's surface by a rocket and, once placed in orbit, maintains its motion without further rocket propulsion.
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; weather satelliteweather satellite,
artificial satellite used to gather data on a global basis for improvement of weather forecasting. Information includes cloud cover, storm location, temperature, and heat balance in the earth's atmosphere.
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Meteorological Satellite

 

(weather satellite), an artificial earth satellite designed to provide continuous observation of the distribution of the cloud cover and the earth’s radiation to obtain meteorological data for weather forecasts. Among the meteorological satellites are the Soviet Meteor space system, some satellites of the Cosmos series (for example, Cosmos 122, 144, 156, 184, and 206), and the American Tiros and Nimbus.

A meteorological satellite provides for simultaneous measurement of the radiation fluxes in various parts of the spectrum and photography of the cloud cover by visible and infrared rays. The measurement is performed by television cameras for day and night viewing; by infrared instruments, which measure the temperature of the earth’s surface and the clouds; and by actinometric instruments, which measure the reflected and radiated thermal energy of the earth and the atmosphere. The meteorological data are recorded in the memory of computers on board the satellite and are subsequently transmitted to ground stations. To provide the geographic referencing of the meteorological data, the satellite has functional systems that orient it continuously and accurately toward the earth and in the direction of the flight path and also synchronize all recording and memory devices. The power for on-board equipment comes from solar batteries, which have an independent system of orientation toward the sun, and from chemical batteries with the necessary automatic controls. The satellites also have radio telemetry systems and systems for making accurate measurements of orbital parameters. Present-day satellites orbit at altitudes of 400–1,500 km, thus providing observation zones up to 1,000 km wide.

The development of a Soviet meteorological satellite began as part of the program to create the Cosmos series of satellites. During the first stage of development, electrical equipment for stabilizing the satellite and orienting its housing toward the center of the earth was developed and tested using satellites of the Cosmos 23 type. A set of instruments for meteorological observations that included television, actinometric, and infrared de-vices, together with a system that ensured the functioning of the satellite in orbit for many months, was tested on Cosmos 122. Cosmos 144 and Cosmos 156, together with ground stations, formed the Meteor experimental space meteorological system. In only one revolution around the earth, the satellite provides information on the cloud cover over a territory of about 8 percent of the globe and data on radiation fluxes for about 20 percent of the globe. The orbits of satellites are arranged relative to one another in such a way that they produce observations of the weather over each region of the globe every six hours. Thus, the development of atmospheric processes in various regions of the earth may be traced.

G. A. NAZAROV

meteorological satellite

[‚med·ē·ə·rə′läj·ə·kəl ′sad·əl‚īt]
(aerospace engineering)
Earth-orbiting spacecraft carrying a variety of instruments for measuring visible and invisible radiations from the earth and its atmosphere.
References in periodicals archive ?
The World Meteorological Organization, an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 member states and territories, has included China's Fengyun series of meteorological satellites as a major element of its Global Earth Observation System.
Caption: FIGURE 6: Time series of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS; blue points), MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS; gray points and line), and daily flux tower (black triangle) evapotranspiration (ET) measurements during 2012 at flux tower measurements sites in (a) a mixed forest (Seolmacheon, SMK) and (b) a rice paddy (Cheongmicheon, CFK).
'This multi-million project, made possible through the Korean government's grant aid and technical cooperation program, is guaranteed to help strengthen Pagasa's capacity to receive and analyze meteorological satellite data and thereby enhancing weather monitoring and improving weather forecast accuracy,' Pagasa Administrator Vicente Malano was quoted saying during the launch.
Atmospheric sounding of the vertical changes in temperature and moisture is one of the key contributions from meteorological satellites. The concept of using satellite infrared radiation observations for retrieving atmospheric temperature was first proposed by King.
New York (AirGuideBusiness - Business & Industry Features) Wed, Apr 2, 2014 - The next Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite built by Lockheed Martin is ready for liftoff April 3 from Space Launch Complex 3 East at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif.
Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) said a defense meteorological satellite program satellite it built has been encapsulated into its payload fairing in preparation for an April 3 liftoff.
ISLAMABAD, November 05, 2010 (Frontier Star): China on Friday launched a new meteorological satellite equipped with advanced detectors which will play an important role in monitoring natural disasters, researching environment and climate change.
The four partner organisations - France's Centre national d'etudes spatiales (CNES), the European meteorological satellite organisation (Eumetsat), the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - indicate a statement that they aim to launch the Jason-2 satellite in 2008.
* The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, the Air Force Satellite Control Network, the Spacetrack Radar System used to track space objects, and the Defense Satellite Communication System--all used today to support critical warfighting functions--began in the 1960s.
Air Force's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP).
The new system will replace the Department of Commerce's Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POESS) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMPS) satellites.
This new generation of Chinese geostationary weather satellites is being developed in parallel with the new generation of geostationary meteorological satellite systems from the international community of satellite providers and is intended to be an important contribution to the global observing system.

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