Miasmas


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Miasmas

 

according to old ideas (in the “prebacterial” period), noxious emanations, the products of decay, which supposedly cause infectious diseases. Since the 19th century the term “miasmas” has been used only in a figurative sense.

References in periodicals archive ?
Por otra parte, debido a la necesidad de evitar enfermedades ocasionadas por los miasmas, a partir del siglo XVIII se generaron reportes con informacion especifica de la calidad de vida y del ambiente a diferentes escalas.
Segun Pickenhayn (1999), los miasmas conjuntamente con la peste y la sanation fueron la base epistemologica clasica de la geografia medica.
Debido a que el criterio epidemiologico del siglo XVII, XVIII y XIX sostenia que las causas de las enfermedades eran los miasmas, se requeria de escritos que contuvieran informacion de terrenos, temperatura, estado de las fuentes de agua, calidad de vida, entre otros datos que permitieran conocer los factores externos que pudieran causar enfermedad, por esta razon surgen la topografias medicas: "estas obras eran relevantamientos de las caracteristicas fisicas de los paises y lugares, y de las enfermedades relacionados con ellos" (Curto, 2008).
Entidades de carater nocivo e hostil a saude, os miasmas foram concebidos por Hahnemann como a causa desencadeadora das doencas.
E, ainda, para Hahnemann, as doencas cronicas seriam o resultado final de medidas terapeuticas equivocadas que possibilitavam que os miasmas evoluissem - e o miasma da psora ganhou, assim, o estatuto de mais antigo, universal e destrutivo, sendo a causa originaria de todas as doencas.
Los miasmas eran "emanaciones particulares cuya penetracion en el organismo produce enfermedades determinadas".
Los miasmas humanos provenian fundamentalmente de las emanaciones de cuerpos enfermos o aglomerados.
The bacteriological revolution that succeeded the miasmatic era substituted bacteria for miasmas but did not fundamentally reshape water and sewerage technologies, though bacteriology emphasized the need for water filtration or treatment of some type.
Copper smoke, acidic enough to scour window glass and kill plants within a matter of hours, could also -- so Swansea's doctors argued -- destroy the miasmas that produced typhus and cholera: while the milkmaids of Gower were cut down by soft but deadly zephyrs from the south and west, workers in the copper smelting districts of Wales luxuriated in miasma-free, if fume-laden, air.
Inspired by the dyking and draining of Holland, which was thought to have eliminated marsh miasma, the Philadelphia physician William Currie in 1791 advocated both the clearing of woods and the draining or drowning of extensive marshes.
While the medical reformers in this country were mustering their statistical evidence that the environment, particularly foul miasmas, caused disease, European scientists began suggesting another source of disease, invisible germs.
Although it took decades of further agitation and legal action before most communities stopped dumping raw (untreated) sewage into the closest available water way (not until 1959 did Pittsburgh and the surrounding cities cease dumping raw sewage into the nearest rivers), the beginning was clearly chartered by these early anti-contagionist public health officials with their concern over miasma.