Keratitis

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keratitis

[‚ker·ə′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the cornea.

Keratitis

 

inflammation of the cornea of the eye.

Keratitis arises from certain external, predominantly infectious, factors (exogenic keratitis) or from common systemic diseases (endogenic keratitis). Keratitis may also be caused by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or radiation traumas, as well as certain types of vitamin deficiency. Keratitis is manifested by photophobia, epiphora, pain, and redness of the eye, by edema of the cornea and disruption of its transparency (development of an inflammatory infiltrate), and sometimes by loss of sensitivity of the cornea and the appearance of newly formed ingrown blood vessels. The duration and course of keratitis depends on the cause of the inflammation; with infectious keratitis it depends on the type and virulence of the microorganisms and also on the reactivity and condition of the body. Often as a result of keratitis there remain persistent opacities (cataracts), in some cases small and unobtrusive and in others large and intense, which are often the cause of a decrease in vision, especially if they are located in the central, contrapupillary portion of the cornea.

A distinction is made between surface keratites and deep keratitis. The most frequently encountered of the surface exogenic keratites are catarrhal keratitis, which develops from infectious conjunctivitis; herpetic keratitis, the result of viral affection of the eye; keratitis with epidemic adenoviral conjunctivitis; serpiginous corneal ulcer, a serious purulent disease usually caused by a pneumococcal infection and often arising after minor injury to the cornea (the entry of small foreign bodies or scratches); and keratitis with blennorrhea, diphtheria, or trachoma.

Most frequently encountered of the surface endogenic keratites is phlyctenular keratitis as a manifestation of an allergy in children and adolescents with tubercular intoxication; keratitis in this form is usually bilateral and tends to recur. The typical form of deep endogenic keratitis is parenchymatous keratitis with congenital syphilis; it is observed in children and adolescents, is as a rule bilateral, and is characterized by a prolonged course and diffuse infiltration of the cornea, often with ingrown blood vessels; vision, which decreases severely in the beginning, may subsequently improve substantially or even be restored with resorption of infiltrates. Deep keratitis with tuberculosis usually affects one eye and leaves intense opacity of the cornea.

Treatment of keratitis must be directed toward eliminating the cause of the disease; with infectious keratites antibiotics or sulfanilamides are used locally; with cataracts that substantially decrease vision surgical intervention (keratoplasty) is necessary.

REFERENCE

Barbel’, I. E. “Bolezni rogovoi obolochki.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po glaznym bolezniam, vol. 2, book 1. Moscow, 1960. (Bibliography.)

M. L. KRASNOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Demographic pattern, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics of microbial keratitis at a tertiary care hospital.
258 presumptive cases of Microbial keratitis were sent to the microbiology laboratory for investigations, of these 258 presumptive cases 105(40.69%) cases were confirmed microbiologically either by microscopy and/ or culture as bacterial or fungal keratitis.
Our study revealed that patients with bacterial keratitis were represented (63%) from the total patients with microbial keratitis, men represented the highest levels (60%) while fungal keratitis patients were (37%) and men represented (61%) of them The relatively highest percentage of males with microbial keratitis as a compression with females seen almost closely to some other studies (15,16).
(6.) Sauer A, Meyer N, Bourcier T; French Study Group for Contact Lens-Related Microbial Keratitis. Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis: a case-control multicenter study.
Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in Ireland.
Sufferers of microbial keratitis currently undergo a corneal transplant where doctors remove all or part of a damaged cornea and replace it with healthy donor tissue.
Microbial keratitis (MK) is a potentially blinding corneal infection, which occurs rarely in the normal eyes.
Incidence of contact-lensassociated microbial keratitis and its related morbidity.
Microbial keratitis is a serious condition that could result in corneal scar, corneal perforation, and even blindness.
Topical fourth-generation fluoroquinolones should be reserved for confirmed cases of microbial keratitis to limit antibiotic resistance and maintain susceptibility of ocular pathogens to this drug.
There are around 1,200 new cases of contact lens-related infection microbial keratitis each year in the UK's three million contact lens wearers.

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