VEGF is produced by endothelial cells, macrophages, activated T cells, and a variety of other cell types (Ferrera & Davis-Smyth, 1997) and is of great importance for microcirculatory system
of dental pulp.
Improved microcirculation solves a myriad of problems, especially for people over 40 years old because over 80% of this population has a deficient or compromised microcirculatory system
that leads to various pain-related complications.
Since the ROS production is exceedingly high during IR, free radicals damage nephron epithelia as well as alter the microcirculatory system
(afferent and efferent), and thus reduce the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (22,23).
Masuda, "EMF effects on microcirculatory system
," Environmentalist, vol.
(7) These sex hormones affect the microcirculatory system
, often producing noticeable changes in the periodontium." In general, estrogen is responsible for alterations in the blood vessels while progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators.